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Maternal smoking increases risk of allergic sensitization and wheezing only in children with allergic predisposition: longitudinal analysis from birth to 10 years.
Allergy. 2009 Mar; 64(3):445-51.A

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The role of passive smoking for allergies and asthma in children above the age of 3 years remains unclear and possible interactive effects with parental allergies have not been formally evaluated in long-term studies. To examine the interaction of passive smoking and an allergic predisposition regarding allergic sensitization, allergic airway symptoms and respiratory infections during the first 10 years of life.

METHODS

In a prospective multicenter birth cohort study with 1314 recruited children in Germany, we assessed serum immunoglobulin E against common allergens at seven time points, and parental smoking and respiratory symptoms annually by using questionnaires. Longitudinal analyses were performed using generalized estimating equation models (stratified by parental allergy status).

RESULTS

During the first 10 years, 18% of the children were exposed to regular maternal smoking since pregnancy, 43% to irregular maternal or only paternal smoking. Among children with two allergic parents, a mother who smoked regularly significantly increased the odds for allergic sensitization (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.3-18.2) and wheezing (adjusted OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.7-19.0) in her child compared with children who were never exposed. For those with only one allergic parent, the odds were doubled and also statistically significant, whereas in children without allergic parents maternal smoking had no effects. There was no association of maternal smoking with allergic rhinitis or respiratory infections.

CONCLUSIONS

Our results suggest that regular maternal smoking is a strong risk factor for allergic sensitization and asthma symptoms during the first 10 years of life, but only in children with allergic parents.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19170671

Citation

Keil, T, et al. "Maternal Smoking Increases Risk of Allergic Sensitization and Wheezing Only in Children With Allergic Predisposition: Longitudinal Analysis From Birth to 10 Years." Allergy, vol. 64, no. 3, 2009, pp. 445-51.
Keil T, Lau S, Roll S, et al. Maternal smoking increases risk of allergic sensitization and wheezing only in children with allergic predisposition: longitudinal analysis from birth to 10 years. Allergy. 2009;64(3):445-51.
Keil, T., Lau, S., Roll, S., Grüber, C., Nickel, R., Niggemann, B., Wahn, U., Willich, S. N., & Kulig, M. (2009). Maternal smoking increases risk of allergic sensitization and wheezing only in children with allergic predisposition: longitudinal analysis from birth to 10 years. Allergy, 64(3), 445-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01867.x
Keil T, et al. Maternal Smoking Increases Risk of Allergic Sensitization and Wheezing Only in Children With Allergic Predisposition: Longitudinal Analysis From Birth to 10 Years. Allergy. 2009;64(3):445-51. PubMed PMID: 19170671.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Maternal smoking increases risk of allergic sensitization and wheezing only in children with allergic predisposition: longitudinal analysis from birth to 10 years. AU - Keil,T, AU - Lau,S, AU - Roll,S, AU - Grüber,C, AU - Nickel,R, AU - Niggemann,B, AU - Wahn,U, AU - Willich,S N, AU - Kulig,M, Y1 - 2009/01/17/ PY - 2009/1/28/entrez PY - 2009/1/28/pubmed PY - 2009/5/27/medline SP - 445 EP - 51 JF - Allergy JO - Allergy VL - 64 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: The role of passive smoking for allergies and asthma in children above the age of 3 years remains unclear and possible interactive effects with parental allergies have not been formally evaluated in long-term studies. To examine the interaction of passive smoking and an allergic predisposition regarding allergic sensitization, allergic airway symptoms and respiratory infections during the first 10 years of life. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter birth cohort study with 1314 recruited children in Germany, we assessed serum immunoglobulin E against common allergens at seven time points, and parental smoking and respiratory symptoms annually by using questionnaires. Longitudinal analyses were performed using generalized estimating equation models (stratified by parental allergy status). RESULTS: During the first 10 years, 18% of the children were exposed to regular maternal smoking since pregnancy, 43% to irregular maternal or only paternal smoking. Among children with two allergic parents, a mother who smoked regularly significantly increased the odds for allergic sensitization (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.3-18.2) and wheezing (adjusted OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.7-19.0) in her child compared with children who were never exposed. For those with only one allergic parent, the odds were doubled and also statistically significant, whereas in children without allergic parents maternal smoking had no effects. There was no association of maternal smoking with allergic rhinitis or respiratory infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that regular maternal smoking is a strong risk factor for allergic sensitization and asthma symptoms during the first 10 years of life, but only in children with allergic parents. SN - 1398-9995 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19170671/Maternal_smoking_increases_risk_of_allergic_sensitization_and_wheezing_only_in_children_with_allergic_predisposition:_longitudinal_analysis_from_birth_to_10_years_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01867.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -