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Risk factors for cancer of the oesophagus in Kerala, India.

Abstract

A case-control study of oesophageal cancer was carried out in Trivandrum, Kerala, involving 267 cases and 895 controls. Risk factors studied in males were pan (betel)-tobacco chewing, bidi and cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and taking snuff. Only pan-tobacco chewing was investigated in females as very few indulged in the other habits. Among males significant associations with higher risk were observed for bidi smoking (p less than 0.001), bidi plus cigarette smoking (p greater than 0.05) and drinking alcohol (p less than 0.001). While a significant effect of duration of pan-tobacco chewing (p less than 0.005) was observed in males, there was no significant trend, the risk first falling then rising as duration of use increased. This was partly due to confounding with smoking. No effect of pan-tobacco use was observed in females. A step-wise model was fitted, retaining only those risk factors which were significant when adjusted for other factors; the risk factors included were duration of pan-tobacco chewing, duration of bidi smoking, daily frequency of bidi and cigarette smoking and alcohol use (yes or no). An adjusted relative risk of 2.03 was observed for a pan-tobacco habit of more than 40 years' duration, of 4.70 for more than 20 years of bidi smoking, of 4.80 for more than 20 bidis/cigarettes per day, and of 2.33 for regular alcohol use (in each category relative to a baseline of those never indulging in the relevant habit).

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Dept. of Cancer Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India.

    , , , ,

    Source

    International journal of cancer 49:4 1991 Oct 21 pg 485-9

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Alcohol Drinking
    Areca
    Case-Control Studies
    Esophageal Neoplasms
    Female
    Humans
    India
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Plants, Medicinal
    Plants, Toxic
    Risk Factors
    Smoking
    Tobacco, Smokeless

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    1917146

    Citation

    Sankaranarayanan, R, et al. "Risk Factors for Cancer of the Oesophagus in Kerala, India." International Journal of Cancer, vol. 49, no. 4, 1991, pp. 485-9.
    Sankaranarayanan R, Duffy SW, Padmakumary G, et al. Risk factors for cancer of the oesophagus in Kerala, India. Int J Cancer. 1991;49(4):485-9.
    Sankaranarayanan, R., Duffy, S. W., Padmakumary, G., Nair, S. M., Day, N. E., & Padmanabhan, T. K. (1991). Risk factors for cancer of the oesophagus in Kerala, India. International Journal of Cancer, 49(4), pp. 485-9.
    Sankaranarayanan R, et al. Risk Factors for Cancer of the Oesophagus in Kerala, India. Int J Cancer. 1991 Oct 21;49(4):485-9. PubMed PMID: 1917146.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Risk factors for cancer of the oesophagus in Kerala, India. AU - Sankaranarayanan,R, AU - Duffy,S W, AU - Padmakumary,G, AU - Nair,S M, AU - Day,N E, AU - Padmanabhan,T K, PY - 1991/10/21/pubmed PY - 1991/10/21/medline PY - 1991/10/21/entrez SP - 485 EP - 9 JF - International journal of cancer JO - Int. J. Cancer VL - 49 IS - 4 N2 - A case-control study of oesophageal cancer was carried out in Trivandrum, Kerala, involving 267 cases and 895 controls. Risk factors studied in males were pan (betel)-tobacco chewing, bidi and cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and taking snuff. Only pan-tobacco chewing was investigated in females as very few indulged in the other habits. Among males significant associations with higher risk were observed for bidi smoking (p less than 0.001), bidi plus cigarette smoking (p greater than 0.05) and drinking alcohol (p less than 0.001). While a significant effect of duration of pan-tobacco chewing (p less than 0.005) was observed in males, there was no significant trend, the risk first falling then rising as duration of use increased. This was partly due to confounding with smoking. No effect of pan-tobacco use was observed in females. A step-wise model was fitted, retaining only those risk factors which were significant when adjusted for other factors; the risk factors included were duration of pan-tobacco chewing, duration of bidi smoking, daily frequency of bidi and cigarette smoking and alcohol use (yes or no). An adjusted relative risk of 2.03 was observed for a pan-tobacco habit of more than 40 years' duration, of 4.70 for more than 20 years of bidi smoking, of 4.80 for more than 20 bidis/cigarettes per day, and of 2.33 for regular alcohol use (in each category relative to a baseline of those never indulging in the relevant habit). SN - 0020-7136 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1917146/Risk_factors_for_cancer_of_the_oesophagus_in_Kerala_India_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0020-7136&date=1991&volume=49&issue=4&spage=485 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -