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A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009; 19(7):504-10NM

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM

Vitamin K dependent proteins have been demonstrated to inhibit vascular calcification. Data on the effect of vitamin K intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, however, are scarce. To examine the relationship between dietary vitamins K(1) and K(2) intake, and its subtypes, and the incidence of CHD.

METHODS AND RESULTS

We used data from the Prospect-EPIC cohort consisting of 16,057 women, enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and aged 49-70 years, who were free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Intake of vitamin K and other nutrients was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse the data. After a mean+/-SD follow-up of 8.1+/-1.6 years, we identified 480 incident cases of CHD. Mean vitamin K(1) intake was 211.7+/-100.3 microg/d and vitamin K(2) intake was 29.1+/-12.8 microg/d. After adjustment for traditional risk factors and dietary factors, we observed an inverse association between vitamin K(2) and risk of CHD with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 0.91 [95% CI 0.85-1.00] per 10 microg/d vitamin K(2) intake. This association was mainly due to vitamin K(2) subtypes MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9. Vitamin K(1) intake was not significantly related to CHD.

CONCLUSIONS

A high intake of menoquinones, especially MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9, could protect against CHD. However, more research is necessary to define optimal intake levels of vitamin K intake for the prevention of CHD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands. g.c.m.gast@umcutrecht.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19179058

Citation

Gast, G C M., et al. "A High Menaquinone Intake Reduces the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease." Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, vol. 19, no. 7, 2009, pp. 504-10.
Gast GC, de Roos NM, Sluijs I, et al. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(7):504-10.
Gast, G. C., de Roos, N. M., Sluijs, I., Bots, M. L., Beulens, J. W., Geleijnse, J. M., ... van der Schouw, Y. T. (2009). A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, 19(7), pp. 504-10. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2008.10.004.
Gast GC, et al. A High Menaquinone Intake Reduces the Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(7):504-10. PubMed PMID: 19179058.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. AU - Gast,G C M, AU - de Roos,N M, AU - Sluijs,I, AU - Bots,M L, AU - Beulens,J W J, AU - Geleijnse,J M, AU - Witteman,J C, AU - Grobbee,D E, AU - Peeters,P H M, AU - van der Schouw,Y T, Y1 - 2009/01/28/ PY - 2008/06/27/received PY - 2008/10/14/revised PY - 2008/10/21/accepted PY - 2009/1/31/entrez PY - 2009/1/31/pubmed PY - 2009/10/6/medline SP - 504 EP - 10 JF - Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD JO - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis VL - 19 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIM: Vitamin K dependent proteins have been demonstrated to inhibit vascular calcification. Data on the effect of vitamin K intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, however, are scarce. To examine the relationship between dietary vitamins K(1) and K(2) intake, and its subtypes, and the incidence of CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data from the Prospect-EPIC cohort consisting of 16,057 women, enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and aged 49-70 years, who were free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Intake of vitamin K and other nutrients was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyse the data. After a mean+/-SD follow-up of 8.1+/-1.6 years, we identified 480 incident cases of CHD. Mean vitamin K(1) intake was 211.7+/-100.3 microg/d and vitamin K(2) intake was 29.1+/-12.8 microg/d. After adjustment for traditional risk factors and dietary factors, we observed an inverse association between vitamin K(2) and risk of CHD with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 0.91 [95% CI 0.85-1.00] per 10 microg/d vitamin K(2) intake. This association was mainly due to vitamin K(2) subtypes MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9. Vitamin K(1) intake was not significantly related to CHD. CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of menoquinones, especially MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9, could protect against CHD. However, more research is necessary to define optimal intake levels of vitamin K intake for the prevention of CHD. SN - 1590-3729 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19179058/A_high_menaquinone_intake_reduces_the_incidence_of_coronary_heart_disease_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0939-4753(08)00209-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -