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Pregame urine specific gravity and fluid intake by National Basketball Association players during competition.
J Athl Train 2009 Jan-Feb; 44(1):53-7JA

Abstract

CONTEXT

Urine specific gravity (USG) has been used to estimate hydration status in athletes on the field, with increasing levels of hypohydration indicated by higher USG measurements (eg, greater than 1.020). Whether initial hydration status based on a urine measure is related to subsequent drinking response during exercise or athletic competition is unclear.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the relationship between pregame USG and the volume of fluid consumed by players in a professional basketball game.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING

Basketball players were monitored during Summer League competition.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS

Players (n = 29) from 5 teams of the National Basketball Association agreed to participate.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S)

Pregame USG was measured for each player on 2 occasions. Athletes were given ad libitum access to fluid during each game and were unaware of the purpose of the study. Volume of fluid intake was measured for each player. To assess sweat loss, athletes were weighed in shorts before and after each game.

RESULTS

Sweat loss ranged from 1.0 to 4.6 L, with a mean sweat loss of 2.2 +/- 0.8 L. Fluid intake ranged from 0.1 to 2.9 L, with a mean fluid intake of 1.0 +/- 0.6 L. Pregame USG was greater than 1.020 in 52% of the urine samples collected and was not correlated with fluid volume consumed during either of the games (r = 0.15, P = .48, and r = 0.15, P = .52, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Approximately half of the players began the games in a hypohydrated state, as indicated by USG. Fluid intake during the game did not compensate for poor hydration status before competition. Furthermore, sweat losses in these players during games were substantial (greater than 2 L in approximately 20 minutes of playing time). Therefore, both pregame and during-game hydration strategies, such as beverage availability and player education, should be emphasized.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Gatorade Sports Science Institute, 617 West Main Street, Barrington, IL 60010, USA. Kris.Osterberg@Gatorade.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19180219

Citation

Osterberg, Kristin L., et al. "Pregame Urine Specific Gravity and Fluid Intake By National Basketball Association Players During Competition." Journal of Athletic Training, vol. 44, no. 1, 2009, pp. 53-7.
Osterberg KL, Horswill CA, Baker LB. Pregame urine specific gravity and fluid intake by National Basketball Association players during competition. J Athl Train. 2009;44(1):53-7.
Osterberg, K. L., Horswill, C. A., & Baker, L. B. (2009). Pregame urine specific gravity and fluid intake by National Basketball Association players during competition. Journal of Athletic Training, 44(1), pp. 53-7. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-44.1.53.
Osterberg KL, Horswill CA, Baker LB. Pregame Urine Specific Gravity and Fluid Intake By National Basketball Association Players During Competition. J Athl Train. 2009;44(1):53-7. PubMed PMID: 19180219.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pregame urine specific gravity and fluid intake by National Basketball Association players during competition. AU - Osterberg,Kristin L, AU - Horswill,Craig A, AU - Baker,Lindsay B, PY - 2009/1/31/entrez PY - 2009/1/31/pubmed PY - 2010/3/10/medline KW - dehydration KW - hydration KW - sweat losses KW - thermoregulation KW - voluntary fluid intake SP - 53 EP - 7 JF - Journal of athletic training JO - J Athl Train VL - 44 IS - 1 N2 - CONTEXT: Urine specific gravity (USG) has been used to estimate hydration status in athletes on the field, with increasing levels of hypohydration indicated by higher USG measurements (eg, greater than 1.020). Whether initial hydration status based on a urine measure is related to subsequent drinking response during exercise or athletic competition is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between pregame USG and the volume of fluid consumed by players in a professional basketball game. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Basketball players were monitored during Summer League competition. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Players (n = 29) from 5 teams of the National Basketball Association agreed to participate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Pregame USG was measured for each player on 2 occasions. Athletes were given ad libitum access to fluid during each game and were unaware of the purpose of the study. Volume of fluid intake was measured for each player. To assess sweat loss, athletes were weighed in shorts before and after each game. RESULTS: Sweat loss ranged from 1.0 to 4.6 L, with a mean sweat loss of 2.2 +/- 0.8 L. Fluid intake ranged from 0.1 to 2.9 L, with a mean fluid intake of 1.0 +/- 0.6 L. Pregame USG was greater than 1.020 in 52% of the urine samples collected and was not correlated with fluid volume consumed during either of the games (r = 0.15, P = .48, and r = 0.15, P = .52, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of the players began the games in a hypohydrated state, as indicated by USG. Fluid intake during the game did not compensate for poor hydration status before competition. Furthermore, sweat losses in these players during games were substantial (greater than 2 L in approximately 20 minutes of playing time). Therefore, both pregame and during-game hydration strategies, such as beverage availability and player education, should be emphasized. SN - 1938-162X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19180219/Pregame_urine_specific_gravity_and_fluid_intake_by_National_Basketball_Association_players_during_competition_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/19180219/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -