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Flaxseed combined with low-dose estrogen therapy preserves bone tissue in ovariectomized rats.
Menopause. 2009 May-Jun; 16(3):545-54.M

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Flaxseed is rich in lignans and alpha-linolenic acid, compounds that may promote healthy skeletons. Many postmenopausal women consume complementary health products such as flaxseed or its components in addition to pharmacological agents such as low-dose estrogen therapy for additional support for menopausal symptoms and related conditions. However, their combined effect on bone health is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 10% dietary flaxseed, low-dose estrogen therapy, or their combination on bone mineral density, biomechanical strength, and skeletal fatty acid composition in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

METHODS

Ovariectomized rats received (1) basal diet (negative control), (2) 10% flaxseed, (3) low-dose estrogen implant (13 microg, 90 day release), or (4) flaxseed + low-dose estrogen implant for 12 weeks. A sham-operated group was included as a positive control. Bone mineral density, biomechanical strength, and fatty acid composition were measured at multiple skeletal sites.

RESULTS

Flaxseed + low-dose estrogen therapy resulted in the highest bone mineral density and peak load at the lumbar vertebrae, with no effect on bone mineral density or strength in the tibia and femur. Flaxseed and flaxseed + low-dose estrogen therapy resulted in significantly higher relative levels of alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid and lower levels of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and n-6/n-3 ratio in the lumbar vertebrae and tibia compared with all other groups.

CONCLUSION

Flaxseed + low-dose estrogen therapy provides the greatest protection against ovariectomy-induced bone loss at the lumbar vertebrae. Moreover, this study is the first to demonstrate that flaxseed, rich in alpha-linolenic acid, alters fatty acid composition in the ovariectomized rat skeleton.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19182694

Citation

Sacco, Sandra M., et al. "Flaxseed Combined With Low-dose Estrogen Therapy Preserves Bone Tissue in Ovariectomized Rats." Menopause (New York, N.Y.), vol. 16, no. 3, 2009, pp. 545-54.
Sacco SM, Jiang JM, Reza-López S, et al. Flaxseed combined with low-dose estrogen therapy preserves bone tissue in ovariectomized rats. Menopause. 2009;16(3):545-54.
Sacco, S. M., Jiang, J. M., Reza-López, S., Ma, D. W., Thompson, L. U., & Ward, W. E. (2009). Flaxseed combined with low-dose estrogen therapy preserves bone tissue in ovariectomized rats. Menopause (New York, N.Y.), 16(3), 545-54. https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e31818fc00a
Sacco SM, et al. Flaxseed Combined With Low-dose Estrogen Therapy Preserves Bone Tissue in Ovariectomized Rats. Menopause. 2009 May-Jun;16(3):545-54. PubMed PMID: 19182694.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Flaxseed combined with low-dose estrogen therapy preserves bone tissue in ovariectomized rats. AU - Sacco,Sandra M, AU - Jiang,Jessica M Y, AU - Reza-López,Sandra, AU - Ma,David W L, AU - Thompson,Lilian U, AU - Ward,Wendy E, PY - 2009/2/3/entrez PY - 2009/2/3/pubmed PY - 2009/7/30/medline SP - 545 EP - 54 JF - Menopause (New York, N.Y.) JO - Menopause VL - 16 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Flaxseed is rich in lignans and alpha-linolenic acid, compounds that may promote healthy skeletons. Many postmenopausal women consume complementary health products such as flaxseed or its components in addition to pharmacological agents such as low-dose estrogen therapy for additional support for menopausal symptoms and related conditions. However, their combined effect on bone health is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 10% dietary flaxseed, low-dose estrogen therapy, or their combination on bone mineral density, biomechanical strength, and skeletal fatty acid composition in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. METHODS: Ovariectomized rats received (1) basal diet (negative control), (2) 10% flaxseed, (3) low-dose estrogen implant (13 microg, 90 day release), or (4) flaxseed + low-dose estrogen implant for 12 weeks. A sham-operated group was included as a positive control. Bone mineral density, biomechanical strength, and fatty acid composition were measured at multiple skeletal sites. RESULTS: Flaxseed + low-dose estrogen therapy resulted in the highest bone mineral density and peak load at the lumbar vertebrae, with no effect on bone mineral density or strength in the tibia and femur. Flaxseed and flaxseed + low-dose estrogen therapy resulted in significantly higher relative levels of alpha-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid and lower levels of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and n-6/n-3 ratio in the lumbar vertebrae and tibia compared with all other groups. CONCLUSION: Flaxseed + low-dose estrogen therapy provides the greatest protection against ovariectomy-induced bone loss at the lumbar vertebrae. Moreover, this study is the first to demonstrate that flaxseed, rich in alpha-linolenic acid, alters fatty acid composition in the ovariectomized rat skeleton. SN - 1530-0374 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19182694/Flaxseed_combined_with_low_dose_estrogen_therapy_preserves_bone_tissue_in_ovariectomized_rats_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e31818fc00a DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -