Muscle moment arm and normalized moment contributions as reference data for musculoskeletal elbow and wrist joint models.J Biomech. 2009 Mar 11; 42(4):463-73.JB
A geometric musculoskeletal model of the elbow and wrist joints was developed to calculate muscle moment arms throughout elbow flexion/extension, forearm pronation/supination, wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation. Model moment arms were verified with data from cadaver specimen studies and geometric models available in the literature. Coefficients of polynomial equations were calculated for all moment arms as functions of joint angle, with special consideration to coupled muscles as a function of two joint angles. Additionally, a "normalized potential moment (NPM)" contribution index for each muscle across the elbow and wrist joints in four degrees-of-freedom was determined using each muscle's normalized physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and peak moment arm (MA). We hypothesize that (a) a geometric model of the elbow and wrist joints can represent the major attributes of MA versus joint angle from many literature sources of cadaver and model data and (b) an index can represent each muscle's normalized moment contribution to each degree-of-freedom at the elbow and wrist. We believe these data serve as a simple, yet comprehensive, reference for how the primary 16 muscles across the elbow and wrist contribute to joint moment and overall joint performance.