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Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Feb; 18(2):384-92.CE

Abstract

AIMS

The aim of the present study was to examine the association between social-cognitive factors, school factors, and smoking initiation among adolescents who had never smoked.

METHODS

The study was based on longitudinal data on Danish adolescents attending randomly selected public schools. Adolescents enrolled in grade 7 (mean age, 13 years) who had never smoked (n = 912) were followed up for 6 months after baseline. Those who had still never smoked were followed up again 18 months after baseline, in grade 8 (n = 442). Social-cognitive factors were examined with five measures: self-efficacy, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors at baseline and smoking initiation as well as the random effects of school, school class, and gender group in the school class.

RESULTS

At the first follow-up, we found significant associations between attitude, father's smoking, best friend's smoking, and smoking initiation. At the second follow-up, we found a significant association with pressure to smoke from friends. Of the school factors, gender group in the school class showed an effect at both first and second follow-up.

CONCLUSION

Our results suggest that father's smoking, best friend's smoking, attitude, and pressure to smoke from friends affect smoking initiation. The results for school factors suggest an effect of classmates of the same gender, which has not previously been examined longitudinally.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychosocial Cancer Research, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark. pernille@cancer.dkNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19190152

Citation

Bidstrup, Pernille Envold, et al. "Social-cognitive and School Factors in Initiation of Smoking Among Adolescents: a Prospective Cohort Study." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 18, no. 2, 2009, pp. 384-92.
Bidstrup PE, Frederiksen K, Siersma V, et al. Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(2):384-92.
Bidstrup, P. E., Frederiksen, K., Siersma, V., Mortensen, E. L., Ross, L., Vinther-Larsen, M., Grønbaek, M., & Johansen, C. (2009). Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 18(2), 384-92. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0584
Bidstrup PE, et al. Social-cognitive and School Factors in Initiation of Smoking Among Adolescents: a Prospective Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(2):384-92. PubMed PMID: 19190152.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study. AU - Bidstrup,Pernille Envold, AU - Frederiksen,Kirsten, AU - Siersma,Volkert, AU - Mortensen,Erik Lykke, AU - Ross,Lone, AU - Vinther-Larsen,Mathilde, AU - Grønbaek,Morten, AU - Johansen,Christoffer, Y1 - 2009/02/03/ PY - 2009/2/5/entrez PY - 2009/2/5/pubmed PY - 2009/4/17/medline SP - 384 EP - 92 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 18 IS - 2 N2 - AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between social-cognitive factors, school factors, and smoking initiation among adolescents who had never smoked. METHODS: The study was based on longitudinal data on Danish adolescents attending randomly selected public schools. Adolescents enrolled in grade 7 (mean age, 13 years) who had never smoked (n = 912) were followed up for 6 months after baseline. Those who had still never smoked were followed up again 18 months after baseline, in grade 8 (n = 442). Social-cognitive factors were examined with five measures: self-efficacy, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors at baseline and smoking initiation as well as the random effects of school, school class, and gender group in the school class. RESULTS: At the first follow-up, we found significant associations between attitude, father's smoking, best friend's smoking, and smoking initiation. At the second follow-up, we found a significant association with pressure to smoke from friends. Of the school factors, gender group in the school class showed an effect at both first and second follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that father's smoking, best friend's smoking, attitude, and pressure to smoke from friends affect smoking initiation. The results for school factors suggest an effect of classmates of the same gender, which has not previously been examined longitudinally. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19190152/Social_cognitive_and_school_factors_in_initiation_of_smoking_among_adolescents:_a_prospective_cohort_study_ L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=19190152 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -