[Diagnostic role of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases].Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2008 Dec; 25(150):460-4.PM
THE AIM OF THIS STUDY
To evaluate the frequency and type of endoscopic and histopathological changes in upper gastrointestinal tract in children with inflammatory bowel diseases.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study included 97 patients aged from 3 to 18 years (mean age 12.8 years, 45 girls and 52 boys) with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), treated in the 2nd Chair and Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology and Feeding of Children from 2005 to 2007. These children were divided into 3 groups depending on the clinical diagnosis: group 1: 38 children with ulcerative colitis (UC), group 2: 26 children with Crohn's disease (CD), and group 3: 33 children with indeterminate colitis (IC). In all patients upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed. During endoscopy biopsies were routinely taken from the stomach (antral region), the duodenum and all mucosal changes. H. pylori infection was detected by a positive culture. The obtained results were analyzed using 2 test (p<0.05).
Esophageal changes were observed in 27.8% children with IBD, most frequently in CD and IC groups, respectively in 34.6% and 36.3% of children. No endoscopic abnormalities in the esophagus were noted in 72.2% of IBD children and the figure rises to 84.3% in UC children (p<0.05). Endoscopic examination of the stomach revealed no changes in 23.7% of IBD children, in 76.3% of these patients inflammatory lesions were observed. Only in 11.5% of the CD patient were no abnormalities in the stomach observed (p<0.05). In the CD group children mild endoscopic changes were observed in 53.8%, and severe in 34.6% of these patients. Ulceration of the duodenum, often in the descending part was revealed in 23.1% of CD children. Helicobacter pylori infection was found in 10.3% of the IBD children, most frequently in the IC group (12.1%). Histopathological examination confirmed esophageal changes in 31.9% of IBD patients, in the stomach and duodenum respectively in 77.3% and 48.4% of these children. Noncaseating granulomas were noted in 3.1% of the CD patients, partial villus atrophy was noted in 1 child with CD.
In the group of IBD children, various inflammatory changes during the upper endoscopy were observed. Endoscopic examination most frequently revealed inflammatory changes of the stomach, less frequently of the duodenum and of the esophagus. Histopathological examination of IBD patients most frequently confirmed stomach changes. Less frequently histopathological changes were observed of the duodenum and of the esophagus, particularly in CD children. In the group of IBD children H. pylori infection was noted in few of the patients. Upper endoscopy in the IBD children is an important diagnostic tool and should be a part of monitoring the activity of the disease and results of the therapy.