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Allelic and genotypic diversity in long-term asexual populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum in comparison with sexual populations.

Abstract

Many aphid species exhibit geographical variation in the mode of reproduction that ranges from cyclical parthenogenesis with a sexual phase to obligate parthenogenesis (asexual reproduction). Theoretical studies predict that organisms reproducing asexually should maintain higher allelic diversity per locus but lower genotypic diversity than organisms reproducing sexually. To corroborate this hypothesis, we evaluated genotypic and allelic diversities in the sexual and asexual populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). Microsatellite analysis revealed that populations in central Japan are asexual, whereas populations in northern Japan are obligatorily sexual. No mixed populations were detected in our study sites. Phylogenetic analysis using microsatellite data and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences revealed a long history of asexuality in central Japan and negated the possibility of the recent origin of the asexual populations from the sexual populations. Asexual populations exhibited much lower genotypic diversity but higher allelic richness per locus than did sexual populations. Asexual populations consisted of a few predominant clones that were considerably differentiated from one another. Sexual populations on alfalfa, an exotic plant in Japan, were most closely related to asexual populations associated with Vicia sativa L. The alfalfa-associated sexual populations harboured one COI haplotype that was included in the haplotype clade of the asexual populations. Available evidence suggests that the sexuality of the alfalfa-associated populations has recently been restored through the northward migration and colonization of alfalfa by V. sativa-associated lineages. Therefore, our results support the theoretical predictions and provide a new perspective on the origin of sexual populations.

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    Source

    Molecular ecology 18:5 2009 Mar pg 801-16

    MeSH

    Alleles
    Animals
    Aphids
    Electron Transport Complex IV
    Female
    Genetic Loci
    Genetic Variation
    Genetics, Population
    Genotype
    Geography
    Japan
    Male
    Microsatellite Repeats
    Mitochondria
    Oviparity
    Peas
    Phylogeny
    Reproduction, Asexual
    Sample Size
    Time Factors
    Viviparity, Nonmammalian

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19207245

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Allelic and genotypic diversity in long-term asexual populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum in comparison with sexual populations. AU - Kanbe,Takashi, AU - Akimoto,Shin-ichi, PY - 2009/2/12/entrez PY - 2009/2/12/pubmed PY - 2011/6/3/medline SP - 801 EP - 16 JF - Molecular ecology JO - Mol. Ecol. VL - 18 IS - 5 N2 - Many aphid species exhibit geographical variation in the mode of reproduction that ranges from cyclical parthenogenesis with a sexual phase to obligate parthenogenesis (asexual reproduction). Theoretical studies predict that organisms reproducing asexually should maintain higher allelic diversity per locus but lower genotypic diversity than organisms reproducing sexually. To corroborate this hypothesis, we evaluated genotypic and allelic diversities in the sexual and asexual populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). Microsatellite analysis revealed that populations in central Japan are asexual, whereas populations in northern Japan are obligatorily sexual. No mixed populations were detected in our study sites. Phylogenetic analysis using microsatellite data and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences revealed a long history of asexuality in central Japan and negated the possibility of the recent origin of the asexual populations from the sexual populations. Asexual populations exhibited much lower genotypic diversity but higher allelic richness per locus than did sexual populations. Asexual populations consisted of a few predominant clones that were considerably differentiated from one another. Sexual populations on alfalfa, an exotic plant in Japan, were most closely related to asexual populations associated with Vicia sativa L. The alfalfa-associated sexual populations harboured one COI haplotype that was included in the haplotype clade of the asexual populations. Available evidence suggests that the sexuality of the alfalfa-associated populations has recently been restored through the northward migration and colonization of alfalfa by V. sativa-associated lineages. Therefore, our results support the theoretical predictions and provide a new perspective on the origin of sexual populations. SN - 1365-294X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19207245/Allelic_and_genotypic_diversity_in_long_term_asexual_populations_of_the_pea_aphid_Acyrthosiphon_pisum_in_comparison_with_sexual_populations_ L2 - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0962-1083&date=2009&volume=18&issue=5&spage=801 ER -