Factors contributing to regular smoking in adolescents in Turkey.J Sch Health. 2009 Mar; 79(3):93-7.JS
The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of lifetime cigarette use, daily use, and current use among young people (aged 15-19 years) and to examine the risk factors contributing to regular smoking.
The number of students was determined proportionately to the numbers of students in all the high schools in the province of Trabzon in Turkey. The data were gathered using the questionnaire method. A total of 4666 students participated in the study. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used in data analysis.
Of the 4666 students who took part in the study, the level of lifetime cigarette use was 38.2% (n = 1796), that of lifetime daily cigarette use was 10.5% (n = 491), and that of current cigarette use was 9.5% (n = 447). Male students (P < .0005), those whose mothers were smokers (P < .0005), those whose fathers smoked (P = .005), those whose siblings smoked (P<.0005), those whose friends smoked (P < .0005), those whose teachers smoked (P = .001), and low achievers in school (P < .0005) stated that they significantly smoked on a more regular basis. According to the results of the logistic regression analysis, the following risk factors were statistically significant: male students smoked 3.02 times (95% CI 2.20-4.16) more than females, those whose mothers were smokers smoked 1.57 times (95% CI 1.09-2.28) more than those whose mothers were not, those whose friends were smokers smoked 2.42 times (95% CI 1.73-3.39) more than those whose friends were non-smokers, poor achievers in school smoked 2.62 times (95% CI 1.97-3.49) more than high achievers, and those without poor grades smoked 1.75 times more (95% CI 1.23-2.40), the risk rising 1.06 times (95% CI 1.01-1.11) with earlier age at first experimentation. The risk of daily cigarette use was observed to decline by 0.91 times (95% CI 0.84-0.98) with increasing numbers of siblings.
Effective smoking prevention programs should take into account the dominant influence of peer groups in the onset and continuation of smoking.