Obesity is major determinant of coronary risk factors in India: Jaipur Heart Watch studies.Indian Heart J. 2008 Jan-Feb; 60(1):26-33.IH
The impact of rising population-wide obesity on cardiovascular risk factors has not been well studied in low-income countries. To correlate the prevalence of obesity with risk factors we performed epidemiological studies in India.
Multiple cross-sectional epidemiological studies, Jaipur Heart Watch (JHW), were performed in India in rural and urban locations. From these cohorts, subjects aged 20-59 years (men 4102, women 2872) were included. Prevalence of various risk factors: smoking/tobacco use, overweight/obesity (body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2) truncal obesity (waist:hip > or = 0.95 men, > or = 0.85 women), hypertension, dyslipidemias, metabolic syndrome and diabetes was determined. Trends were examined using least squares regression.
Smoking/tobacco use was more in rural men (50.0% vs 40.6%) and urban women (8.9% vs 4.5%, p < 0.01). Obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome were more in urban cohorts (p < 0.001). Age-adjusted prevalence (%) of obesity in various cohorts, rural JHW, and urban JHW-1, JHW-2, JHW-3, and JHW-4 respectively, in men was 9.4, 21.1, 35.6, 54.0, and 50.9 (r2 = 0.92, p = 0.009) and in women 8.9, 15.7, 45.1, 61.5, and 57.7 (r2 = 0.88, p = 0.018). Prevalence of truncal obesity in men was 3.2, 19.6, 39.6, 41.4, and 31.1 (r2 = 0.60, p = 0.124) and in women 10.1, 49.5, 42.1, 51.7, and 50.5 (r2 = 0.56, p = 0.1467). In successive cohorts increasing trends were observed in the prevalence of hypertension (r2 = 0.93, p = 0.008) and metabolic syndrome (r2 = 0.99, p = 0.005) with weaker trends for hypercholesterolemia (r2 = 0.41, p = 0.241) and diabetes (r2 = 0.79, p = 0.299) in men. In women, significant trends were observed for hypertension (r2 = 0.98, p = 0.001) and weaker trends for others. Increase in generalized obesity correlated significantly with hypertension (two-line regression r2, men 0.91, women 0.88), hypercholesterolemia (0.53, 0.44), metabolic syndrome (0.87, 0.94) and diabetes (0.84, 0.93). Truncal obesity correlated less strongly with the risk factors like hypertension (0.50, 0.57), hypercholesterolemia (0.88, 0.61), metabolic syndrome (0.76, 0.33), and diabetes (0.75, 0.33).
In Asian Indian subjects, escalating population-wide generalized obesity correlates strongly with increasing cardiovascular risk factors.