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Vitamin D and mortality in older men and women.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Nov; 71(5):666-72.CE

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Vitamin D deficiency is common among the elderly and may contribute to cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

DESIGN AND PATIENTS

The Hoorn Study is a prospective population-based study among older men and women.

MEASUREMENTS

Fasting serum 25(OH)D was determined in 614 study participants at the follow-up visit in 2000-2001, the baseline for the present analysis. To account for sex differences and seasonal variations of 25(OH)D levels we formed sex-specific quartiles, which were calculated from the 25(OH)D values of each season.

RESULTS

After a mean follow-up period of 6.2 years, 51 study participants died including 20 deaths due to cardiovascular causes. Unadjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs; with 95% confidence intervals) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the first when compared with the upper three 25(OH)D quartiles were 2.24 (1.28-3.92; P = 0.005) and 4.78 (1.95-11.69; P = 0.001), respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, arterial hypertension, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, glomerular filtration rate and waist-to-hip ratio, the HRs remained significant for all-cause [1.97 (1.08-3.58; P = 0.027)] and for cardiovascular mortality [5.38 (2.02-14.34; P = 0.001)].

CONCLUSIONS

Low 25(OH)D levels are associated with all-cause mortality and even more pronounced with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear whether vitamin D deficiency is a cause or a consequence of a poor health status. Therefore, intervention studies are warranted to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation reduces mortality and cardiovascular diseases.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, Graz, Austria. stefan.pilz@chello.atNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19226272

Citation

Pilz, Stefan, et al. "Vitamin D and Mortality in Older Men and Women." Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 71, no. 5, 2009, pp. 666-72.
Pilz S, Dobnig H, Nijpels G, et al. Vitamin D and mortality in older men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71(5):666-72.
Pilz, S., Dobnig, H., Nijpels, G., Heine, R. J., Stehouwer, C. D., Snijder, M. B., van Dam, R. M., & Dekker, J. M. (2009). Vitamin D and mortality in older men and women. Clinical Endocrinology, 71(5), 666-72. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03548.x
Pilz S, et al. Vitamin D and Mortality in Older Men and Women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71(5):666-72. PubMed PMID: 19226272.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin D and mortality in older men and women. AU - Pilz,Stefan, AU - Dobnig,Harald, AU - Nijpels,Giel, AU - Heine,Robert J, AU - Stehouwer,Coen D A, AU - Snijder,Marieke B, AU - van Dam,Rob M, AU - Dekker,Jacqueline M, Y1 - 2009/02/18/ PY - 2009/2/20/entrez PY - 2009/2/20/pubmed PY - 2009/12/31/medline SP - 666 EP - 72 JF - Clinical endocrinology JO - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) VL - 71 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is common among the elderly and may contribute to cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: The Hoorn Study is a prospective population-based study among older men and women. MEASUREMENTS: Fasting serum 25(OH)D was determined in 614 study participants at the follow-up visit in 2000-2001, the baseline for the present analysis. To account for sex differences and seasonal variations of 25(OH)D levels we formed sex-specific quartiles, which were calculated from the 25(OH)D values of each season. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up period of 6.2 years, 51 study participants died including 20 deaths due to cardiovascular causes. Unadjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs; with 95% confidence intervals) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the first when compared with the upper three 25(OH)D quartiles were 2.24 (1.28-3.92; P = 0.005) and 4.78 (1.95-11.69; P = 0.001), respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, arterial hypertension, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, glomerular filtration rate and waist-to-hip ratio, the HRs remained significant for all-cause [1.97 (1.08-3.58; P = 0.027)] and for cardiovascular mortality [5.38 (2.02-14.34; P = 0.001)]. CONCLUSIONS: Low 25(OH)D levels are associated with all-cause mortality and even more pronounced with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear whether vitamin D deficiency is a cause or a consequence of a poor health status. Therefore, intervention studies are warranted to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation reduces mortality and cardiovascular diseases. SN - 1365-2265 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19226272/Vitamin_D_and_mortality_in_older_men_and_women_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03548.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -