Antimycin A-induced cell death depends on AIF translocation through NO production and PARP activation and is not involved in ROS generation, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in HL-60 cells.J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2009 Mar; 62(3):145-52.JA
A respiratory inhibitor, antimycin A (AA), induced an apoptotic-like cell death characterized by nuclear and DNA fragmentation in human leukemia HL-60 cells. This cell death was significantly restricted by a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), and a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, 5-aminoisoquinoline (AIQ). Indeed, NO production and PARP overactivation were detected in the cells treated with AA. On the one hand, L-NMMA partly eliminated NO production and on the other, AIQ and L-NMMA also restricted PARP activation. Excessive signals related to PARP overactivation induce the translocation of an apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to the nuclei, resulting in DNA fragmentation. In AA-treated cells, the nuclear translocation of AIF occurred. This translocation was restricted by pretreatment with AIQ and L-NMMA. Although pretreatment with ascorbic acid eliminated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by the blockade of complex III by AA, the pretreatment did not protect the cells from AA-induced cell death. Furthermore, cytochrome c release or caspase-3 activation was not observed in the cells treated with AA. These results suggest that AA-induced cell death does not depend on respiratory inhibition and the succeeding cascades, but on NO production, PARP overactivation and AIF translocation.