Rosiglitazone and PPAR-gamma overexpression protect mitochondrial membrane potential and prevent apoptosis by upregulating anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins.J Cell Physiol. 2009 Jul; 220(1):58-71.JC
To determine the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in cytoprotection, we subjected N2-A cells to oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (H-R). Following H-R insults, H(2)O(2) production was increased while cell viability declined, which was accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytochrome c release, caspases 9 and 3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage and apoptosis. Rosiglitazone up to 5 microM protected cell viability, normalized MMP, and prevented apoptotic signals. The protective effect of rosiglitazone was abrogated by GW9662, a PPAR-gamma antagonist, or a specific PPAR-gamma small interference RNA (siRNA) but not a control scRNA. PPAR-gamma overexpression alone was effective in maintaining MMP and preventing apoptosis and its protective effect was also abrogated by PPAR-gamma siRNA or GW9662. To elucidate the mechanism by which PPAR-gamma protects MMP and prevents apoptosis, we analyzed Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and phosphorylated Bad (p-Bad). H-R suppressed them. Rosiglitazone or PPAR-gamma overexpression restored them via PPAR-gamma. Rosiglitazone or PPAR-gamma overexpression preserved phosphorylated Akt and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) in a PPAR-gamma dependent manner. These results indicate that ligand-activated PPAR-gamma protects N2-A cells against H-R damage by enhancing Bcl-2/Bcl-xl and maintaining p-Bad via preservation of p-Akt.