Nocturia: an Austrian study on the multifactorial etiology of this symptom.Neurourol Urodyn. 2009; 28(5):427-31.NU
To identify the different factors contributing to nocturia in a clinical setting.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Three hundred twenty-four patients (133 women, 191 men; mean age 63 years) were entered into this multi-institutional study. When presenting with nocturia we obtained detailed medical history and performed urine analysis, post-void residual volume and renal ultrasonography. Bothersome score and quality of life were evaluated using visual analogue scale and Kings' Health Questionnaire (KHQ), respectively. Patients were asked to complete a 48-hr voiding diary (VD). Nocturia and its associated problems were evaluated using KHQ and VD in conjunction with concurrent health variables.
Mean nocturia was 2.8 in men versus in 3.1 women. Fifty percent of patients were aged >65 years, 60% had daytime lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as well as nocturia, 33% had cardiac pathologies and 7% had peripheral edema. Principal causes for nocturia were global polyuria in 17%, nocturnal polyuria (NP) in 33% and reduced functional capacity <250 ml in 16.2%; 21.2% had mixed forms of NP and reduced bladder capacity and 12.6% suffered from other causes. Mean bothersome score was higher in women (P < 0.001) and in patients with NP (P = 0.012). Quality of life was significantly lower in women (P = 0.001), in patients aged >65 years (P = 0.029) and in those with reduced functional capacity (P < 0.001). Mean voided 24-hr urine was higher in women (P = 0.033) and in patients aged <65 years (P = 0.019).
Nocturia had a high impact on bothersome score, strong associations with poor health and other LUTS. NP was the predominant cause of nocturia. Neurourol. Urodynam. 28:427-431, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.