The effect of acute high light and low temperature stresses on the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and superoxide dismutase activity in two Dunaliella salina strains.Physiol Plant. 2009 Mar; 135(3):272-80.PP
Dunaliella species accumulate carotenoids and their role in protection against photooxidative stress has been investigated extensively. By contrast, the role of other antioxidants in this alga, has received less attention. Therefore, the components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, along with superoxide dismutase (E.C. 184.108.40.206) and peroxidase (E.C. 220.127.116.11) activity were compared in two strains of Dunaliella salina. Strain IR-1 had two-fold higher chlorophyll and beta-carotene concentration than Gh-U. IR-1 had around four-fold higher superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and pyrogallol peroxidase activities than Gh-U on a protein basis. Ascorbate and glutathione concentrations and redox state did not differ between strains and there was little difference in the activity of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase [E.C. 18.104.22.168], dehydroascorbate reductase [E.C. 22.214.171.124] and glutathione reductase [E.C. 126.96.36.199]). The response of these antioxidants to high light and low temperature was assessed by transferring cells from normal growth conditions (28 degrees C, photon flux density of 100 micromol m(-2) s(-1))to 28 degrees C/1200 micromol m(-2) s(-1); 13 degrees C/100 micromol m(-2) s(-1); 13 degrees C/1200 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and 28 degrees C/100 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for 24 h. Low temperature and combined high light-low temperature decreased chlorophyll and beta-carotene in both strains indicating that these treatments cause photooxidative stress. High light, low temperature and combined high light-low temperature treatments increased the total ascorbate pool by 10-50% and the total glutathione pool by 20-100% with no consistent effect on their redox state. Activities of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes were not greatly affected but all the treatments increased superoxide dismutase activity. It is concluded that D. salina can partially adjust to photooxidative conditions by increasing superoxide dismutase activity, ascorbate and glutathione.