Are children with type 1 diabetes consuming a healthful diet?: a review of the current evidence and strategies for dietary change.Diabetes Educ 2009 Jan-Feb; 35(1):97-107DE
The purpose of this study is to review the literature on usual dietary intake in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to discuss approaches to promote dietary change with potential efficacy.
Search strategies included a MEDLINE search for English-language articles that estimated usual dietary intake in children with T1D and a screening of the reference lists from original studies. The keywords used were diet, dietary intake, nutrition, type 1 diabetes, children, adolescents, and youth. Studies were included if they were observational, contained a sample of children with T1D, and estimated usual dietary intake.
Nine studies fulfilled the criteria (6 US, 3 European). Of the 4 studies with a control group, 3 reported that both total fat and saturated fat intake were higher in the children with T1D. Six studies examined the percent of total calories from saturated fat; mean intake ranged from 11 to 15%, exceeding ADA recommendations (< 7%). Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intakes were low among children with T1D. No prior studies have addressed dietary change in this population. The behavior-change literature suggests that nutrition education alone is unlikely to be adequate, but that incorporation of behavioral approaches offers potential efficacy in promoting healthful dietary change.
Children with T1D are not meeting dietary guidelines, and in some areas their diets are less healthful than children without diabetes. As these dietary behaviors may affect the risk of long-term complications, the incorporation of behavioral approaches promoting healthy eating into routine clinical practice is warranted.