Arylalkylamine vanadium salts as new anti-diabetic compounds.J Inorg Biochem 2009; 103(4):559-66JI
Vanadium compounds show insulin-like effects in vivo and in vitro. Several clinical studies have shown the efficacy of vanadium compounds in type 2 diabetic subjects. However, a major concern is safety, which calls for the development of more potent vanadium compounds. For that reason different laboratories develop strategies to decrease the therapeutic dose of vanadate. One of these strategies use substrates of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO)/vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), a bifunctional protein with amine oxidase activity and adhesive properties implicated in lymphocyte homing at inflammation sites. Substrates of SSAO combined with low concentrations of vanadate strongly stimulate glucose transport and GLUT4 glucose transporter recruitment to the plasma membrane in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in rat adipocytes. This combination also shows anti-diabetic effects in various animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Benzylamine/vanadate administration generates peroxovanadium locally in pancreatic islets, which stimulates insulin secretion, and also produces peroxovanadium in adipose tissue, thereby activating glucose metabolism in adipocytes and in neighboring muscle. This opens up the possibility of using the SSAO/VAP-1 activity as a local generator of protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors in anti-diabetic therapy. More recently a novel class of arylalkylaminevanadium salts have shown potent insulin-mimetic effects downstream of the insulin receptor. Administration of these compounds lowers glycemia and normalizes the plasma lipid profile in type 1 and type 2 models of diabetes. The combination of different approaches to decrease vanadium doses, among them chelating agents and SSAO substrates, should permit to develop safe and efficient vanadium based agents safe for diabetes treatment.