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Strain dependent production of ciguatoxin precursors (gambiertoxins) by Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae) in culture.
Toxicon. 1991; 29(6):761-75.T

Abstract

Thirteen strains of Gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from Queensland (Australia), Hawaii, French Polynesia and the Virgin Islands were mass cultured and extracted for ciguatoxin. A biodetrital sample containing wild G. toxicus collected from the Republic of Kiribati was also extracted for ciguatoxin. Ciguatoxin, as characterized from moray eels, was not detected in any of the strains examined. Two Queensland strains and the wild G. toxicus produced putative ciguatoxin precursors named gambiertoxins. These gambiertoxins were less polar than ciguatoxin but produced bioassay signs in mice and in-vitro responses in isolated guinea pig atria and vas deferens which were similar (but not identical) to those produced by ciguatoxin. The gambiertoxins from cultured cells were also shown to competitively inhibit the binding of [3H]brevetoxin-3 to rat brain membranes in a dose-dependent manner. The gambiertoxins were more potent than ciguatoxin (on a per mouse unit basis) at stimulating neural elements of guinea pig atria. The two culture strains produced similar amounts of gambiertoxins, even when grown in nutrient media made from different seawater containing different concentrations of nutrients. Changes in nutrient media did not induce the other strains of G. toxicus to produce gambiertoxins. The production of these ciguatoxin precursors appears to be limited to only certain genetic strains of G. toxicus, with the majority of strains not producing these toxins. We propose that ciguatera occurs when blooms of G. toxicus strains genetically capable of producing these ciguatoxin precursors enter the marine food chain. These toxins could then become oxidatively metabolized in fishes to the major polar ciguatoxin. Wild cells produced approximately 100-fold greater quantities of gambiertoxins per cell than did the two culture strains indicating that there is considerable potential for increased production of these ciguatoxin precursors from G. toxicus in culture.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Southern Fisheries Centre, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Deception Bay, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1926177

Citation

Holmes, M J., et al. "Strain Dependent Production of Ciguatoxin Precursors (gambiertoxins) By Gambierdiscus Toxicus (Dinophyceae) in Culture." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 29, no. 6, 1991, pp. 761-75.
Holmes MJ, Lewis RJ, Poli MA, et al. Strain dependent production of ciguatoxin precursors (gambiertoxins) by Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae) in culture. Toxicon. 1991;29(6):761-75.
Holmes, M. J., Lewis, R. J., Poli, M. A., & Gillespie, N. C. (1991). Strain dependent production of ciguatoxin precursors (gambiertoxins) by Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae) in culture. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 29(6), 761-75.
Holmes MJ, et al. Strain Dependent Production of Ciguatoxin Precursors (gambiertoxins) By Gambierdiscus Toxicus (Dinophyceae) in Culture. Toxicon. 1991;29(6):761-75. PubMed PMID: 1926177.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Strain dependent production of ciguatoxin precursors (gambiertoxins) by Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae) in culture. AU - Holmes,M J, AU - Lewis,R J, AU - Poli,M A, AU - Gillespie,N C, PY - 1991/1/1/pubmed PY - 1991/1/1/medline PY - 1991/1/1/entrez SP - 761 EP - 75 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 29 IS - 6 N2 - Thirteen strains of Gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from Queensland (Australia), Hawaii, French Polynesia and the Virgin Islands were mass cultured and extracted for ciguatoxin. A biodetrital sample containing wild G. toxicus collected from the Republic of Kiribati was also extracted for ciguatoxin. Ciguatoxin, as characterized from moray eels, was not detected in any of the strains examined. Two Queensland strains and the wild G. toxicus produced putative ciguatoxin precursors named gambiertoxins. These gambiertoxins were less polar than ciguatoxin but produced bioassay signs in mice and in-vitro responses in isolated guinea pig atria and vas deferens which were similar (but not identical) to those produced by ciguatoxin. The gambiertoxins from cultured cells were also shown to competitively inhibit the binding of [3H]brevetoxin-3 to rat brain membranes in a dose-dependent manner. The gambiertoxins were more potent than ciguatoxin (on a per mouse unit basis) at stimulating neural elements of guinea pig atria. The two culture strains produced similar amounts of gambiertoxins, even when grown in nutrient media made from different seawater containing different concentrations of nutrients. Changes in nutrient media did not induce the other strains of G. toxicus to produce gambiertoxins. The production of these ciguatoxin precursors appears to be limited to only certain genetic strains of G. toxicus, with the majority of strains not producing these toxins. We propose that ciguatera occurs when blooms of G. toxicus strains genetically capable of producing these ciguatoxin precursors enter the marine food chain. These toxins could then become oxidatively metabolized in fishes to the major polar ciguatoxin. Wild cells produced approximately 100-fold greater quantities of gambiertoxins per cell than did the two culture strains indicating that there is considerable potential for increased production of these ciguatoxin precursors from G. toxicus in culture. SN - 0041-0101 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1926177/Strain_dependent_production_of_ciguatoxin_precursors__gambiertoxins__by_Gambierdiscus_toxicus__Dinophyceae__in_culture_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -