[Negative effects of tobacco on the periodontium in a Moroccan population].Odontostomatol Trop. 2008 Sep; 31(123):5-10.OT
Several studies have reported an association between smoking and periodontal destruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the harmful effect of tobacco on the periodontal condition of a Moroccan population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
It was an exposed-non exposed study of 42 patients: 21 smokers and 21 non-smokers selected from patients attending the department of periodontology in Rabat. Smokers should have smoked at least 2 years. Periodontal variables were assessed clinically (level of plaque, degree of gingival inflammation, probing depth, attachment loss, and gingival recession) and periapical radiographs.
There was no difference of age or level of plaque between smokers and no smokers. For the others variants, smokers had more inflammation than non smokers (GI = 1.83 versus 1.45; p = 0.03), a number of attachment loss (45.5 for smokers, and 13.6 for non smokers; p = 0.01) and periodontal pockets (26 for smokers, and 6.3 for non smokers; p = 0.01) more important and with more severe damage (AL (attachment loss) = 1.33 in smokers versus 0.72 in non smokers; p = 0.01). The number of surfaces with bone loss is higher in smoker's group than non smoker's group (25 versus 6.36; p < 0.001). The severity of bone resorption is also important (1.26 versus 0.43; p < 0.001). There wasn't a statistically significant difference concerning gingival recessions.
This study suggests that tobacco has a negative effect in the periodonte of the studied Moroccan population. In smokers' patients, the prevalence of risk to develop a periodontitis is higher. In such patients, the probing depth, attachment loss and its severity, increase significantly. Level of periodontal bone is significantly decreased in patients who consume tobacco.