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alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Feb-Mar; 80(2-3):85-91.PL

Abstract

Blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are considered biomarkers of status. Alpha-linolenic acid, ALA, the plant omega-3, is the dietary precursor for the long-chain omega-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Studies in normal healthy adults consuming western diets, which are rich in linoleic acid (LA), show that supplemental ALA raises EPA and DPA status in the blood and in breast milk. However, ALA or EPA dietary supplements have little effect on blood or breast milk DHA levels, whereas consumption of preformed DHA is effective in raising blood DHA levels. Addition of ALA to the diets of formula-fed infants does raise DHA, but no level of ALA tested raises DHA to levels achievable with preformed DHA at intakes similar to typical human milk DHA supply. The DHA status of infants and adults consuming preformed DHA in their diets is, on average, greater than that of people who do not consume DHA. With no other changes in diet, improvement of blood DHA status can be achieved with dietary supplements of preformed DHA, but not with supplementation of ALA, EPA, or other precursors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. jtb4@cornell.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19269799

Citation

Brenna, J Thomas, et al. "Alpha-Linolenic Acid Supplementation and Conversion to N-3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans." Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 80, no. 2-3, 2009, pp. 85-91.
Brenna JT, Salem N, Sinclair AJ, et al. Alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009;80(2-3):85-91.
Brenna, J. T., Salem, N., Sinclair, A. J., & Cunnane, S. C. (2009). Alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, 80(2-3), 85-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2009.01.004
Brenna JT, et al. Alpha-Linolenic Acid Supplementation and Conversion to N-3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Feb-Mar;80(2-3):85-91. PubMed PMID: 19269799.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. AU - Brenna,J Thomas, AU - Salem,Norman,Jr AU - Sinclair,Andrew J, AU - Cunnane,Stephen C, AU - ,, Y1 - 2009/03/09/ PY - 2009/01/15/received PY - 2009/01/15/accepted PY - 2009/3/10/entrez PY - 2009/3/10/pubmed PY - 2009/7/1/medline SP - 85 EP - 91 JF - Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids JO - Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids VL - 80 IS - 2-3 N2 - Blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are considered biomarkers of status. Alpha-linolenic acid, ALA, the plant omega-3, is the dietary precursor for the long-chain omega-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Studies in normal healthy adults consuming western diets, which are rich in linoleic acid (LA), show that supplemental ALA raises EPA and DPA status in the blood and in breast milk. However, ALA or EPA dietary supplements have little effect on blood or breast milk DHA levels, whereas consumption of preformed DHA is effective in raising blood DHA levels. Addition of ALA to the diets of formula-fed infants does raise DHA, but no level of ALA tested raises DHA to levels achievable with preformed DHA at intakes similar to typical human milk DHA supply. The DHA status of infants and adults consuming preformed DHA in their diets is, on average, greater than that of people who do not consume DHA. With no other changes in diet, improvement of blood DHA status can be achieved with dietary supplements of preformed DHA, but not with supplementation of ALA, EPA, or other precursors. SN - 0952-3278 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19269799/alpha_Linolenic_acid_supplementation_and_conversion_to_n_3_long_chain_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids_in_humans_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0952-3278(09)00016-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -