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The public health impact of avian influenza viruses.

Abstract

Influenza viruses with novel hemagglutinin and 1 or more accompanying genes derived from avian influenza viruses sporadically emerge in humans and have the potential to result in a pandemic if the virus causes disease and spreads efficiently in a population that lacks immunity to the novel hemagglutinin. Since 1997, multiple avian influenza virus subtypes have been transmitted directly from domestic poultry to humans and have caused a spectrum of human disease, from asymptomatic to severe and fatal. To assess the pandemic risk that avian influenza viruses pose, we have used multiple strategies to better understand the capacity of avian viruses to infect, cause disease, and transmit among mammals, including humans. Seroepidemiologic studies that evaluate the frequency and risk of human infection with avian influenza viruses in populations with exposure to domestic or wild birds can provide a better understanding of the pandemic potential of avian influenza subtypes. Investigations conducted in Hong Kong following the first H5N1 outbreak in humans in 1997 determined that exposure to poultry in live bird markets was a key risk factor for human disease. Among poultry workers, butchering and exposure to sick poultry were risk factors for antibody to H5 virus, which provided evidence for infection. A second risk assessment tool, the ferret, can be used to evaluate the level of virulence and potential for host-to-host transmission of avian influenza viruses in this naturally susceptible host. Avian viruses isolated from humans exhibit a level of virulence and transmissibility in ferrets that generally reflects that seen in humans. The ferret model thus provides a means to monitor emerging avian influenza viruses for pandemic risk, as well as to evaluate laboratory-generated reassortants and mutants to better understand the molecular basis of influenza virus transmissibility. Taken together, such studies provide valuable information with which we can assess the public health risk of avian influenza viruses.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Immunology and Pathogenesis Branch, Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. JKatz@cdc.gov

    , , , , , ,

    Source

    Poultry science 88:4 2009 Apr pg 872-9

    MeSH

    Animals
    Birds
    Disease Outbreaks
    Ferrets
    Global Health
    Humans
    Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
    Influenza A virus
    Influenza in Birds
    Influenza, Human
    Public Health
    Risk Assessment
    Seroepidemiologic Studies

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19276438

    Citation

    Katz, J M., et al. "The Public Health Impact of Avian Influenza Viruses." Poultry Science, vol. 88, no. 4, 2009, pp. 872-9.
    Katz JM, Veguilla V, Belser JA, et al. The public health impact of avian influenza viruses. Poult Sci. 2009;88(4):872-9.
    Katz, J. M., Veguilla, V., Belser, J. A., Maines, T. R., Van Hoeven, N., Pappas, C., ... Tumpey, T. M. (2009). The public health impact of avian influenza viruses. Poultry Science, 88(4), pp. 872-9. doi:10.3382/ps.2008-00465.
    Katz JM, et al. The Public Health Impact of Avian Influenza Viruses. Poult Sci. 2009;88(4):872-9. PubMed PMID: 19276438.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The public health impact of avian influenza viruses. AU - Katz,J M, AU - Veguilla,V, AU - Belser,J A, AU - Maines,T R, AU - Van Hoeven,N, AU - Pappas,C, AU - Hancock,K, AU - Tumpey,T M, PY - 2009/3/12/entrez PY - 2009/3/12/pubmed PY - 2009/5/16/medline SP - 872 EP - 9 JF - Poultry science JO - Poult. Sci. VL - 88 IS - 4 N2 - Influenza viruses with novel hemagglutinin and 1 or more accompanying genes derived from avian influenza viruses sporadically emerge in humans and have the potential to result in a pandemic if the virus causes disease and spreads efficiently in a population that lacks immunity to the novel hemagglutinin. Since 1997, multiple avian influenza virus subtypes have been transmitted directly from domestic poultry to humans and have caused a spectrum of human disease, from asymptomatic to severe and fatal. To assess the pandemic risk that avian influenza viruses pose, we have used multiple strategies to better understand the capacity of avian viruses to infect, cause disease, and transmit among mammals, including humans. Seroepidemiologic studies that evaluate the frequency and risk of human infection with avian influenza viruses in populations with exposure to domestic or wild birds can provide a better understanding of the pandemic potential of avian influenza subtypes. Investigations conducted in Hong Kong following the first H5N1 outbreak in humans in 1997 determined that exposure to poultry in live bird markets was a key risk factor for human disease. Among poultry workers, butchering and exposure to sick poultry were risk factors for antibody to H5 virus, which provided evidence for infection. A second risk assessment tool, the ferret, can be used to evaluate the level of virulence and potential for host-to-host transmission of avian influenza viruses in this naturally susceptible host. Avian viruses isolated from humans exhibit a level of virulence and transmissibility in ferrets that generally reflects that seen in humans. The ferret model thus provides a means to monitor emerging avian influenza viruses for pandemic risk, as well as to evaluate laboratory-generated reassortants and mutants to better understand the molecular basis of influenza virus transmissibility. Taken together, such studies provide valuable information with which we can assess the public health risk of avian influenza viruses. SN - 0032-5791 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19276438/The_public_health_impact_of_avian_influenza_viruses_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ps/article-lookup/doi/10.3382/ps.2008-00465 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -