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The structure of acute posttraumatic stress symptoms: 'reexperiencing', 'active avoidance', 'dysphoria', and 'hyperarousal'.
J Anxiety Disord. 2009 Jun; 23(5):656-9.JA

Abstract

Empirical data have challenged chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consisting of three dimensions. In the present study we aimed to determine the factor structure of acute posttraumatic symptoms in two recently traumatized samples. In sample 1, 203 civilian trauma survivors were administered the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) approximately 1 week posttrauma. In sample 2, 182 civilian treatment seeking trauma survivors completed the DTS at an average of 41.4 days posttrauma. Our confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a 4-factor intercorrelated model provided the best representation of the data in both samples. The four factors are best described as reexperiencing, active avoidance, dysphoria, and hyperarousal. For acute posttraumatic symptoms, the empirical data suggest to split the avoidance cluster into 'Active avoidance' and 'Dysphoria'-confirming findings in studies on chronic PTSD. In future revisions of the DSM, the diagnostic criteria for PTSD may need to be adapted to fit the research findings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Academic Medical Centre of University, Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Centre for Psychological Trauma, Meibergdreef 5, 1100 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. m.olff@amc.nNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19282141

Citation

Olff, Miranda, et al. "The Structure of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: 'reexperiencing', 'active Avoidance', 'dysphoria', and 'hyperarousal'." Journal of Anxiety Disorders, vol. 23, no. 5, 2009, pp. 656-9.
Olff M, Sijbrandij M, Opmeer BC, et al. The structure of acute posttraumatic stress symptoms: 'reexperiencing', 'active avoidance', 'dysphoria', and 'hyperarousal'. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23(5):656-9.
Olff, M., Sijbrandij, M., Opmeer, B. C., Carlier, I. V., & Gersons, B. P. (2009). The structure of acute posttraumatic stress symptoms: 'reexperiencing', 'active avoidance', 'dysphoria', and 'hyperarousal'. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(5), 656-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.02.003
Olff M, et al. The Structure of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: 'reexperiencing', 'active Avoidance', 'dysphoria', and 'hyperarousal'. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23(5):656-9. PubMed PMID: 19282141.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The structure of acute posttraumatic stress symptoms: 'reexperiencing', 'active avoidance', 'dysphoria', and 'hyperarousal'. AU - Olff,Miranda, AU - Sijbrandij,Marit, AU - Opmeer,Brent C, AU - Carlier,Ingrid V E, AU - Gersons,Berthold P R, Y1 - 2009/02/11/ PY - 2008/09/17/received PY - 2009/01/23/revised PY - 2009/02/02/accepted PY - 2009/3/14/entrez PY - 2009/3/14/pubmed PY - 2009/8/15/medline SP - 656 EP - 9 JF - Journal of anxiety disorders JO - J Anxiety Disord VL - 23 IS - 5 N2 - Empirical data have challenged chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consisting of three dimensions. In the present study we aimed to determine the factor structure of acute posttraumatic symptoms in two recently traumatized samples. In sample 1, 203 civilian trauma survivors were administered the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) approximately 1 week posttrauma. In sample 2, 182 civilian treatment seeking trauma survivors completed the DTS at an average of 41.4 days posttrauma. Our confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a 4-factor intercorrelated model provided the best representation of the data in both samples. The four factors are best described as reexperiencing, active avoidance, dysphoria, and hyperarousal. For acute posttraumatic symptoms, the empirical data suggest to split the avoidance cluster into 'Active avoidance' and 'Dysphoria'-confirming findings in studies on chronic PTSD. In future revisions of the DSM, the diagnostic criteria for PTSD may need to be adapted to fit the research findings. SN - 1873-7897 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19282141/The_structure_of_acute_posttraumatic_stress_symptoms:_'reexperiencing'_'active_avoidance'_'dysphoria'_and_'hyperarousal'_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0887-6185(09)00032-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -