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Preparation, characterization of NIPAM and NIPAM/BAM copolymer nanoparticles and their acute toxicity testing using an aquatic test battery.
Aquat Toxicol. 2009 May 05; 92(3):146-54.AT

Abstract

Poly N-isopropylacrylamide and N-isopropylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer nanoparticles of 50-70 nm were prepared by free radical polymerisation. The particle sizes of the copolymer nanoparticles were measured in the test media Milli-Q water, Algae Media, Daphnia Media and Microtox Diluent as a function of temperature. Whereas in Milli-Q water the particle size was seen to decrease above the lower critical solution temperature of the thermoresponsive polymer, in the test media it was seen to increase significantly, indicative of aggregation. At the temperatures employed for the ecotoxicological studies all particles, with the exception of the 50:50 copolymer existed as nanoparticles. The zeta potential of Poly N-isopropylacrylamide and N-isopropylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer particles measured in the different media was seen to correlate well with the ratio of N-tert-butylacrylamide monomer and therefore the hydrophobicity of the particles. Ecotoxicological studies of the copolymer nanoparticles was performed using four test species Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna, Thamnocephalus platyurus and the cytotoxicity of the 100% Poly N-isopropylacrylamide and 85:15 N-isopropylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer nanoparticles was evaluated using a salmonid cell line. Although no significant cytotoxicological response was recorded, significant ecotoxicological response was observed at particle concentrations of up to 1000 mg l(-1). The ecotoxicological response was seen to correlate well with the ratio of N-tert-butylacrylamide monomer and therefore with the zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The toxic response in Daphnia magna was seen to further correlate with the reduction in zeta potential pointing towards a contribution of secondary effects due to modification of the medium. No correlation with particle size was observed. The sensitivity of the test species was seen to vary depending on copolymer composition. The relevance of the derived structure-activity relationships is discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin 8, Ireland.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19303150

Citation

Naha, Pratap C., et al. "Preparation, Characterization of NIPAM and NIPAM/BAM Copolymer Nanoparticles and Their Acute Toxicity Testing Using an Aquatic Test Battery." Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 92, no. 3, 2009, pp. 146-54.
Naha PC, Casey A, Tenuta T, et al. Preparation, characterization of NIPAM and NIPAM/BAM copolymer nanoparticles and their acute toxicity testing using an aquatic test battery. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;92(3):146-54.
Naha, P. C., Casey, A., Tenuta, T., Lynch, I., Dawson, K. A., Byrne, H. J., & Davoren, M. (2009). Preparation, characterization of NIPAM and NIPAM/BAM copolymer nanoparticles and their acute toxicity testing using an aquatic test battery. Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 92(3), 146-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.02.001
Naha PC, et al. Preparation, Characterization of NIPAM and NIPAM/BAM Copolymer Nanoparticles and Their Acute Toxicity Testing Using an Aquatic Test Battery. Aquat Toxicol. 2009 May 5;92(3):146-54. PubMed PMID: 19303150.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Preparation, characterization of NIPAM and NIPAM/BAM copolymer nanoparticles and their acute toxicity testing using an aquatic test battery. AU - Naha,Pratap C, AU - Casey,Alan, AU - Tenuta,Tiziana, AU - Lynch,Iseult, AU - Dawson,Kenneth A, AU - Byrne,Hugh J, AU - Davoren,Maria, Y1 - 2009/02/12/ PY - 2008/10/11/received PY - 2009/02/02/revised PY - 2009/02/04/accepted PY - 2009/3/24/entrez PY - 2009/3/24/pubmed PY - 2009/5/7/medline SP - 146 EP - 54 JF - Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) JO - Aquat Toxicol VL - 92 IS - 3 N2 - Poly N-isopropylacrylamide and N-isopropylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer nanoparticles of 50-70 nm were prepared by free radical polymerisation. The particle sizes of the copolymer nanoparticles were measured in the test media Milli-Q water, Algae Media, Daphnia Media and Microtox Diluent as a function of temperature. Whereas in Milli-Q water the particle size was seen to decrease above the lower critical solution temperature of the thermoresponsive polymer, in the test media it was seen to increase significantly, indicative of aggregation. At the temperatures employed for the ecotoxicological studies all particles, with the exception of the 50:50 copolymer existed as nanoparticles. The zeta potential of Poly N-isopropylacrylamide and N-isopropylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer particles measured in the different media was seen to correlate well with the ratio of N-tert-butylacrylamide monomer and therefore the hydrophobicity of the particles. Ecotoxicological studies of the copolymer nanoparticles was performed using four test species Vibrio fischeri, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna, Thamnocephalus platyurus and the cytotoxicity of the 100% Poly N-isopropylacrylamide and 85:15 N-isopropylacrylamide/N-tert-butylacrylamide copolymer nanoparticles was evaluated using a salmonid cell line. Although no significant cytotoxicological response was recorded, significant ecotoxicological response was observed at particle concentrations of up to 1000 mg l(-1). The ecotoxicological response was seen to correlate well with the ratio of N-tert-butylacrylamide monomer and therefore with the zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The toxic response in Daphnia magna was seen to further correlate with the reduction in zeta potential pointing towards a contribution of secondary effects due to modification of the medium. No correlation with particle size was observed. The sensitivity of the test species was seen to vary depending on copolymer composition. The relevance of the derived structure-activity relationships is discussed. SN - 1879-1514 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19303150/Preparation_characterization_of_NIPAM_and_NIPAM/BAM_copolymer_nanoparticles_and_their_acute_toxicity_testing_using_an_aquatic_test_battery_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166-445X(09)00047-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -