The effect of the observer vantage point on perceived distortions in linear perspective images.Atten Percept Psychophys. 2009 Jan; 71(1):183-93.AP
Some features of linear perspective images may look distorted. Such distortions appear in two drawings by Jan Vredeman de Vries involving perceived elliptical, instead of circular, pillars and tilted, instead of upright, columns. Distortions may be due to factors intrinsic to the images, such as violations of the so-called Perkins's laws, or factors extrinsic to them, such as observing the images from positions different from their center of projection. When the correct projection centers for the two drawings were reconstructed, it was found that they were very close to the images and, therefore, practically unattainable in normal observation. In two experiments, enlarged versions of images were used as stimuli, making the positions of the projection centers attainable for observers. When observed from the correct positions, the perceived distortions disappeared or were greatly diminished. Distortions perceived from other positions were smaller than would be predicted by geometrical analyses, possibly due to flatness cues in the images. The results are relevant for the practical purposes of creating faithful impressions of 3-D spaces using 2-D images.