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Simultaneous determination of seven fluoroquinolones in royal jelly by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.


A method for the quantitative determination of seven fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) used in beekeeping, viz. ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and difloxacin, in royal jelly samples was developed on the basis of high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Sample preparation included deproteination, ultrasonic-assisted extraction with a mixed inorganic solution of monopotassium phosphate (KH(2)PO(4)) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na(2)EDTA), and clean-up on a solid-phase extraction cartridge. The extraction procedure was optimized with regard to the amount of inorganic solvent and the duration of sonication for royal jelly as a complicated matrix. Overall recoveries for FQs ranged from 85.9 to 99.1% for royal jelly with standard deviations between 2.79 and 6.27%. Limits of quantification were 2-40 ng/g for seven FQs in royal jelly. A total of 57 real royal jelly samples collected from beekeepers and supermarkets were analyzed. The three most abundant honeybee-use FQs, i. e. ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, were determined in some royal jelly samples in concentrations ranging from 11.9 to 55.6 ng/g. Unexpectedly, however, difloxacin was found at concentrations of about 46.8 ng/g in one sample although it is rarely used in beekeeping. The presented method was successfully applied to quantify FQs in real royal jelly samples.


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  • Authors+Show Affiliations


    Bee Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Bee Product Quality Supervision and Testing Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.

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    Journal of separation science 32:7 2009 Apr pg 955-64


    Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
    Fatty Acids
    Linear Models
    Molecular Structure
    Spectrometry, Fluorescence

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't



    PubMed ID