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Nuts and novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May; 89(5):1649S-56S.AJ

Abstract

Nuts are energy-dense foods, rich in total fat and unsaturated fatty acids. The favorable fatty acid profile probably contributes to the beneficial effects of nut consumption observed in epidemiologic studies (prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes) and feeding trials (cholesterol lowering). Besides fat, the complex matrices of nuts contain many bioactive compounds: vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to benefit newer cardiovascular risk biomarkers, such as LDL oxidizability, soluble inflammatory molecules, and endothelial dysfunction. Protection of LDL oxidation by nut intake has been documented in some, but not all, clinical studies. In one study, feeding one daily serving of mixed nuts was associated with lower oxidized LDL concentrations. Regarding inflammation, cross-sectional studies have shown that nut consumption is associated with lower concentrations of circulating inflammatory molecules and higher plasma adiponectin, a potent antiinflammatory adipokine. Clinical studies with nuts have documented reduced inflammatory cytokine concentrations but no consistent changes of C-reactive protein. Only walnuts have been formally tested for effects on endothelial function. After both walnut diets and single walnut meals, favorable vasoreactivity changes have been observed. Walnut consumption also reduced expression of endothelin 1, a potent endothelial activator, in an animal model of accelerated atherosclerosis. Beneficial effects on vascular reactivity may be ascribed to several constituents of walnuts: l-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide, alpha-linolenic acid, and phenolic antioxidants. Although more studies are warranted, the emerging picture is that nut consumption beneficially influences cardiovascular risk beyond cholesterol lowering.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona and Ciber Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Barcelona, Spain. eros@clinic.ub.es

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19321561

Citation

Ros, Emilio. "Nuts and Novel Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 5, 2009, 1649S-56S.
Ros E. Nuts and novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1649S-56S.
Ros, E. (2009). Nuts and novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), 1649S-56S. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736R
Ros E. Nuts and Novel Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1649S-56S. PubMed PMID: 19321561.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nuts and novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. A1 - Ros,Emilio, Y1 - 2009/03/25/ PY - 2009/3/27/entrez PY - 2009/3/27/pubmed PY - 2009/5/15/medline SP - 1649S EP - 56S JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 89 IS - 5 N2 - Nuts are energy-dense foods, rich in total fat and unsaturated fatty acids. The favorable fatty acid profile probably contributes to the beneficial effects of nut consumption observed in epidemiologic studies (prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes) and feeding trials (cholesterol lowering). Besides fat, the complex matrices of nuts contain many bioactive compounds: vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to benefit newer cardiovascular risk biomarkers, such as LDL oxidizability, soluble inflammatory molecules, and endothelial dysfunction. Protection of LDL oxidation by nut intake has been documented in some, but not all, clinical studies. In one study, feeding one daily serving of mixed nuts was associated with lower oxidized LDL concentrations. Regarding inflammation, cross-sectional studies have shown that nut consumption is associated with lower concentrations of circulating inflammatory molecules and higher plasma adiponectin, a potent antiinflammatory adipokine. Clinical studies with nuts have documented reduced inflammatory cytokine concentrations but no consistent changes of C-reactive protein. Only walnuts have been formally tested for effects on endothelial function. After both walnut diets and single walnut meals, favorable vasoreactivity changes have been observed. Walnut consumption also reduced expression of endothelin 1, a potent endothelial activator, in an animal model of accelerated atherosclerosis. Beneficial effects on vascular reactivity may be ascribed to several constituents of walnuts: l-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide, alpha-linolenic acid, and phenolic antioxidants. Although more studies are warranted, the emerging picture is that nut consumption beneficially influences cardiovascular risk beyond cholesterol lowering. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19321561/Nuts_and_novel_biomarkers_of_cardiovascular_disease_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736R DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -