Dietary carotenoid intake is associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly men.J Nutr 2009; 139(5):987-92JN
Carotenoids have antioxidant properties. Little is known about the relation of dietary carotenoid intake on metabolic syndrome risk. We examined whether dietary carotenoid intake was associated with metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome risk factors. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study in 374 men aged 40-80 y. Intakes of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin were estimated using a validated FFQ. Presence of metabolic syndrome was determined using fasting serum glucose, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome was present in 22% of the men. After adjustment for confounders, total carotenoid and lycopene intakes were inversely associated with presence of metabolic syndrome [relative risk (RR) quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 (95% CI) 0.42 (0.20-0.87), P-trend 0.02; and 0.55 (0.28-1.11), P-trend 0.01, respectively]. For beta-carotene, a decreased risk was observed for each quartile of intake compared with the first [RR quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 (95% CI) 0.58 (0.33-1.02)]. Higher total carotenoid, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lycopene intakes were associated with lower waist circumferences and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass. Higher lycopene intake was related to lower serum triglyceride concentrations. In conclusion, higher total carotenoid intakes, mainly those of beta-carotene and lycopene, were associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and with lower measures of adiposity and serum triglyceride concentrations in middle-aged and elderly men.