Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients presenting with diarrhoea in Jakarta, Indonesia.Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Sep; 103(9):892-8.TR
We investigated the occurrence of intestinal parasites in Indonesian HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhoea prior to administering antiretroviral therapy. The influence of age, CD4(+) cell count and season on parasite occurrence was also studied. In total, 318 unconcentrated stool samples were analysed using Lugol's iodine and modified acid fast staining to detect intestinal coccidia. Most samples (94.5%) were from males aged 21-40 years with CD4(+) counts < or = 50 cells/mm(3). Parasites were found in 84.3% of samples (single species infections, 71.4%; polyparasitism, 12.9%), with protozoan pathogens occurring most commonly. Cryptosporidium (4.9%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.5%) and Giardia duodenalis (1.9%) were the most frequent single infections, but Blastocystis hominis (72.4%) was the most commonly occurring protist. Cryptosporidium and C. cayetanensis occurred in 11.9% and 7.8% of all (single and mixed) infections. The most common co-infection was with B. hominis and Cryptosporidium (6.3%). Intestinal protozoan pathogens were detected more frequently in cases with CD4(+) counts < or = 200/mm(3). No seasonal influence was determined for Cryptosporidium, C. cayetanensis or B. hominis, but gross seasonal disturbances may have influenced our findings. Intestinal parasites should be looked for routinely in this group of individuals and should be treated to reduce complications and the likelihood of transmission.