Lipoxygenase gene expression in ripening kiwifruit in relation to ethylene and aroma production.J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Apr 08; 57(7):2875-81.JA
During postharvest ripening of kiwifruit [ Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa cv. Bruno] at 20 degrees C, six lipoxygenase (LOX) genes exhibited different expression patterns. AdLox1 and AdLox5 were up-regulated during ripening, and transcript accumulation was delayed by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), whereas AdLox2, AdLox3, AdLox4, and AdLox6 were down-regulated with ripening. Levels of two volatiles arising from the LOX pathway, that is, n-hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal, were highest after harvest and declined during ripening at 20 degrees C, whereas the characteristic kiwifruit esters ethyl and methyl butanoate levels increased late in the ripening process. Individual fatty acid concentrations underwent little change during ripening, with linoleic (LA) and linolenic (LeA) acids constituting about 40% of the total. Application of LA and LeA to kiwifruit flesh disks promoted LOX activity and n-hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal generation, whereas inhibitors of LOX, n-propyl gallate (n-PG) and nordihydroguariaretic acid (NDGA), caused a parallel reduction in enzyme activity and in the production of C6 aldehydes. The six LOX genes showed different sensitivities to the LOX substrates and inhibitors. The ethylene up-regulated genes AdLox1 and AdLox5 were induced by LA and LeA and inhibited by n-PG and NDGA. Of the LOX genes that were down-regulated by ethylene, only AdLox4 and AdLox6 were stimulated in response to the substrates and retarded by the inhibitors. The possible roles of the six LOX genes in kiwifruit ripening and aroma development are discussed.