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Pretravel health preparation among US residents traveling to India to VFRs: importance of ethnicity in defining VFRs.
J Travel Med. 2009 Mar-Apr; 16(2):112-8.JT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

International travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) in lower income countries experience high rates of travel-related infections. We examined demographic characteristics and pretravel preparation practices among US residents traveling to India to determine factors that may contribute to higher infection rates and that would allow for improved prevention strategies.

METHODS

A cross-sectional study was conducted among US residents traveling to India in departure areas for flights to India at three US international airports during August 2005. Eligible travelers were US residents going to India who were English speaking and >or=18 years. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess knowledge of and compliance with pretravel health recommendations.

RESULTS

Of 1,574 eligible travelers, 1,302 (83%) participated; 60% were male and the median age was 37. Eighty-five percent were of South Asian/Indian ethnicity and 76% reported VFR as the primary reason for travel. More than 90% of VFRs had at least a college education and only 6% cited financial barriers as reasons for not obtaining travel health services. VFRs were less likely than non-VFR travelers to seek pretravel health advice, to be protected against hepatitis A or typhoid fever, and less likely to be taking appropriate antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. However, when stratified by ethnicity, travelers of South Asian ethnicity were less likely than other travelers to adhere to pretravel health recommendations, regardless of VFR status.

CONCLUSIONS

Similar to previous studies, VFR status was associated with pretravel health practices that leave travelers at risk for important infectious diseases. This association differed by ethnicity, which may also be an important marker of nonadherence to pretravel health recommendations. These findings have important implications for identifying at-risk travelers and properly targeting prevention messages.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. hbaggett@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19335811

Citation

Baggett, Henry C., et al. "Pretravel Health Preparation Among US Residents Traveling to India to VFRs: Importance of Ethnicity in Defining VFRs." Journal of Travel Medicine, vol. 16, no. 2, 2009, pp. 112-8.
Baggett HC, Graham S, Kozarsky PE, et al. Pretravel health preparation among US residents traveling to India to VFRs: importance of ethnicity in defining VFRs. J Travel Med. 2009;16(2):112-8.
Baggett, H. C., Graham, S., Kozarsky, P. E., Gallagher, N., Blumensaadt, S., Bateman, J., Edelson, P. J., Arguin, P. M., Steele, S., Russell, M., & Reed, C. (2009). Pretravel health preparation among US residents traveling to India to VFRs: importance of ethnicity in defining VFRs. Journal of Travel Medicine, 16(2), 112-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2008.00284.x
Baggett HC, et al. Pretravel Health Preparation Among US Residents Traveling to India to VFRs: Importance of Ethnicity in Defining VFRs. J Travel Med. 2009 Mar-Apr;16(2):112-8. PubMed PMID: 19335811.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pretravel health preparation among US residents traveling to India to VFRs: importance of ethnicity in defining VFRs. AU - Baggett,Henry C, AU - Graham,Susan, AU - Kozarsky,Phyllis E, AU - Gallagher,Nancy, AU - Blumensaadt,Sena, AU - Bateman,John, AU - Edelson,Paul J, AU - Arguin,Paul M, AU - Steele,Stefanie, AU - Russell,Michelle, AU - Reed,Christie, PY - 2009/4/2/entrez PY - 2009/4/2/pubmed PY - 2009/8/6/medline SP - 112 EP - 8 JF - Journal of travel medicine JO - J Travel Med VL - 16 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: International travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) in lower income countries experience high rates of travel-related infections. We examined demographic characteristics and pretravel preparation practices among US residents traveling to India to determine factors that may contribute to higher infection rates and that would allow for improved prevention strategies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among US residents traveling to India in departure areas for flights to India at three US international airports during August 2005. Eligible travelers were US residents going to India who were English speaking and >or=18 years. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess knowledge of and compliance with pretravel health recommendations. RESULTS: Of 1,574 eligible travelers, 1,302 (83%) participated; 60% were male and the median age was 37. Eighty-five percent were of South Asian/Indian ethnicity and 76% reported VFR as the primary reason for travel. More than 90% of VFRs had at least a college education and only 6% cited financial barriers as reasons for not obtaining travel health services. VFRs were less likely than non-VFR travelers to seek pretravel health advice, to be protected against hepatitis A or typhoid fever, and less likely to be taking appropriate antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. However, when stratified by ethnicity, travelers of South Asian ethnicity were less likely than other travelers to adhere to pretravel health recommendations, regardless of VFR status. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to previous studies, VFR status was associated with pretravel health practices that leave travelers at risk for important infectious diseases. This association differed by ethnicity, which may also be an important marker of nonadherence to pretravel health recommendations. These findings have important implications for identifying at-risk travelers and properly targeting prevention messages. SN - 1708-8305 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19335811/Pretravel_health_preparation_among_US_residents_traveling_to_India_to_VFRs:_importance_of_ethnicity_in_defining_VFRs_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2008.00284.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -