Speciation of lead, copper, zinc and antimony in water draining a shooting range--time dependant metal accumulation and biomarker responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.).Sci Total Environ. 2009 Jun 15; 407(13):4047-55.ST
The speciation of Pb, Cu, Zn and Sb in a shooting range run-off stream were studied during a period of 23 days. In addition, metal accumulation in gills and liver, red blood cell ALA-D activity, hepatic metallothionine (Cd/Zn-MT) and oxidative stress index (GSSG/ tGSH levels) in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed to the stream were investigated. Fish, contained in cages, were exposed and sampled after 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11 and 23 days of exposure. Trace metals in the water were fractionated in situ according to size (nominal molecular mass) and charge properties. During the experimental period an episode with higher runoff occurred resulting in increased levels of metals in the stream. Pb and Cu were mainly found as high molecular mass species, while Zn and Sb were mostly present as low molecular mass species. Pb, Cu and Sb accumulated on gills, in addition to Al origination from natural sources in the catchment. Pb, Cu and Sb were also detected at elevated concentration in the liver. Blood glucose and plasma Na and Cl levels were significantly altered during the exposure period, and are attributed to elevated concentrations of Pb, Cu and Al. A significant suppression of ALA-D was detected after 11 days. Significant differences were detected in Cd/Zn-MT and oxidative stress (tGSH/GSSG) responses at Day 4. For Pb the results show a clear link between the HMM (high molecular mass) positively charged Pb species, followed by accumulation on gills and liver and a suppression in ALA-D. Thus, high flow episodes can remobilise metals from the catchment, inducing stress to aquatic organisms.