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A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May; 89(5):1588S-1596S.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health.

OBJECTIVE

We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids.

DESIGN

Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)) and plasma lipids were assessed at weeks 0, 11, 22, 35, 48, 61, and 74. Weight was measured at weeks 0, 22, and 74.

RESULTS

Weight loss was significant within each diet group but not significantly different between groups (-4.4 kg in the vegan group and -3.0 kg in the conventional diet group, P = 0.25) and related significantly to Hb A(1c) changes (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to 74 wk or last available values were -0.34 and -0.14 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.43). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to last available value or last value before any medication adjustment were -0.40 and 0.01 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.03). In analyses before alterations in lipid-lowering medications, total cholesterol decreased by 20.4 and 6.8 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional diet groups, respectively (P = 0.01); LDL cholesterol decreased by 13.5 and 3.4 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

Both diets were associated with sustained reductions in weight and plasma lipid concentrations. In an analysis controlling for medication changes, a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations. Whether the observed differences provide clinical benefit for the macro- or microvascular complications of diabetes remains to be established. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00276939.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA. nbarnard@pcrm.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19339401

Citation

Barnard, Neal D., et al. "A Low-fat Vegan Diet and a Conventional Diabetes Diet in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: a Randomized, Controlled, 74-wk Clinical Trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 5, 2009, 1588S-1596S.
Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, et al. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1588S-1596S.
Barnard, N. D., Cohen, J., Jenkins, D. J., Turner-McGrievy, G., Gloede, L., Green, A., & Ferdowsian, H. (2009). A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5), 1588S-1596S. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736H
Barnard ND, et al. A Low-fat Vegan Diet and a Conventional Diabetes Diet in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: a Randomized, Controlled, 74-wk Clinical Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1588S-1596S. PubMed PMID: 19339401.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. AU - Barnard,Neal D, AU - Cohen,Joshua, AU - Jenkins,David J A, AU - Turner-McGrievy,Gabrielle, AU - Gloede,Lise, AU - Green,Amber, AU - Ferdowsian,Hope, Y1 - 2009/04/01/ PY - 2009/4/3/entrez PY - 2009/4/3/pubmed PY - 2009/5/15/medline SP - 1588S EP - 1596S JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 89 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Low-fat vegetarian and vegan diets are associated with weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cardiovascular health. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of a low-fat vegan diet and conventional diabetes diet recommendations on glycemia, weight, and plasma lipids. DESIGN: Free-living individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following 2003 American Diabetes Association guidelines (conventional, n = 50) for 74 wk. Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A(1c)) and plasma lipids were assessed at weeks 0, 11, 22, 35, 48, 61, and 74. Weight was measured at weeks 0, 22, and 74. RESULTS: Weight loss was significant within each diet group but not significantly different between groups (-4.4 kg in the vegan group and -3.0 kg in the conventional diet group, P = 0.25) and related significantly to Hb A(1c) changes (r = 0.50, P = 0.001). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to 74 wk or last available values were -0.34 and -0.14 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.43). Hb A(1c) changes from baseline to last available value or last value before any medication adjustment were -0.40 and 0.01 for vegan and conventional diets, respectively (P = 0.03). In analyses before alterations in lipid-lowering medications, total cholesterol decreased by 20.4 and 6.8 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional diet groups, respectively (P = 0.01); LDL cholesterol decreased by 13.5 and 3.4 mg/dL in the vegan and conventional groups, respectively (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Both diets were associated with sustained reductions in weight and plasma lipid concentrations. In an analysis controlling for medication changes, a low-fat vegan diet appeared to improve glycemia and plasma lipids more than did conventional diabetes diet recommendations. Whether the observed differences provide clinical benefit for the macro- or microvascular complications of diabetes remains to be established. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00276939. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19339401/A_low_fat_vegan_diet_and_a_conventional_diabetes_diet_in_the_treatment_of_type_2_diabetes:_a_randomized_controlled_74_wk_clinical_trial_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736H DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -