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Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD.

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric illness that often co-occurs with other common psychiatric problems. Although empirical evidence supports pharmacological and behavioral treatments, side effects, concerns regarding safety and fears about long-term use all contribute to families searching for alternative methods of treating the symptoms of ADHD. This review presents the published evidence on supplementation, including single ingredients (e.g., minerals, vitamins, amino acids and essential fatty acids), botanicals and multi-ingredient formulas in the treatment of ADHD symptoms. In most cases, evidence is sparse, mixed and lacking information. Of those supplements where we found published studies, the evidence is best for zinc (two positive randomized, controlled trials); there is mixed evidence for carnitine, pycnogenol and essential fatty acids, and more research is needed before drawing conclusions about vitamins, magnesium, iron, SAM-e, tryptophan and Ginkgo biloba with ginseng. To date, there is no evidence to support the use of St John's wort, tyrosine or phenylalanine in the treatment of ADHD symptoms. Multi-ingredient approaches are an intriguing yet under-researched area; we discuss the benefits of this approach considering the heterogeneous nature of ADHD.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand. julia.rucklidge@canterbury.ac.nz

    ,

    Source

    Expert review of neurotherapeutics 9:4 2009 Apr pg 461-76

    MeSH

    Amino Acids
    Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
    Complementary Therapies
    Dietary Supplements
    Fatty Acids, Essential
    Humans
    Minerals
    Vitamins

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19344299

    Citation

    Rucklidge, Julia J., et al. "Nutrient Supplementation Approaches in the Treatment of ADHD." Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 9, no. 4, 2009, pp. 461-76.
    Rucklidge JJ, Johnstone J, Kaplan BJ. Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9(4):461-76.
    Rucklidge, J. J., Johnstone, J., & Kaplan, B. J. (2009). Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 9(4), pp. 461-76. doi:10.1586/ern.09.7.
    Rucklidge JJ, Johnstone J, Kaplan BJ. Nutrient Supplementation Approaches in the Treatment of ADHD. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9(4):461-76. PubMed PMID: 19344299.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD. AU - Rucklidge,Julia J, AU - Johnstone,Jeanette, AU - Kaplan,Bonnie J, PY - 2009/4/7/entrez PY - 2009/4/7/pubmed PY - 2009/6/26/medline SP - 461 EP - 76 JF - Expert review of neurotherapeutics JO - Expert Rev Neurother VL - 9 IS - 4 N2 - Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric illness that often co-occurs with other common psychiatric problems. Although empirical evidence supports pharmacological and behavioral treatments, side effects, concerns regarding safety and fears about long-term use all contribute to families searching for alternative methods of treating the symptoms of ADHD. This review presents the published evidence on supplementation, including single ingredients (e.g., minerals, vitamins, amino acids and essential fatty acids), botanicals and multi-ingredient formulas in the treatment of ADHD symptoms. In most cases, evidence is sparse, mixed and lacking information. Of those supplements where we found published studies, the evidence is best for zinc (two positive randomized, controlled trials); there is mixed evidence for carnitine, pycnogenol and essential fatty acids, and more research is needed before drawing conclusions about vitamins, magnesium, iron, SAM-e, tryptophan and Ginkgo biloba with ginseng. To date, there is no evidence to support the use of St John's wort, tyrosine or phenylalanine in the treatment of ADHD symptoms. Multi-ingredient approaches are an intriguing yet under-researched area; we discuss the benefits of this approach considering the heterogeneous nature of ADHD. SN - 1744-8360 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19344299/full_citation L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1586/ern.09.7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -