Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) ameliorates chronic alcohol ingestion-induced myocardial insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress.J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009 Aug; 47(2):247-55.JM
Chronic alcohol intake leads to insulin resistance and alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which appears to be a result of the complex interaction between genes and environment. This study was designed to examine the impact of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) transgenic overexpression on alcohol-induced insulin resistance and myocardial injury. ALDH2 transgenic mice were produced using chicken beta-actin promoter. Wild-type FVB and ALDH2 mice were fed a 4% alcohol or control diet for 12 weeks. Cell shortening was evaluated using an edge-detection system. Western blot analysis was used to assess insulin signaling at the levels of receptor, IRS, Akt, GSK-3beta, the transcription factors Foxo3a, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun. Chronic alcohol intake led to glucose intolerance, reduced glucose uptake, cardiac hypertrophy and reduced cell shortening, the effects of which were alleviated by ALDH2. ALDH2 significantly attenuated alcohol-induced decrease in the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and increase in serine phosphorylation of IRS. Phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3beta and Foxo3a was reduced following alcohol intake, the effect of which was abrogated by ALDH2. Levels of JNK, c-Jun and their phosphorylation were elevated following chronic alcohol intake, which were obliterated by ALDH2. Transfection of H9C2 myoblast cells with Foxo3a adenovirus mimicked acetaldehyde-induced JNK activation and glucose uptake defect whereas the dominant negative Foxo3a ablated acetaldehyde-elicited insulin insensitivity. In addition, ALDH2 reversed alcohol-induced myocardial ER stress. These data revealed that ALDH2 overexpression antagonizes chronic alcohol intake-induced cardiac insulin insensitivity and contractile defect, possibly via improvement of insulin signaling at the levels of insulin receptor, IRS, Akt, Foxo3a and JNK.