Polycystic ovary syndrome in the adolescent.Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2009 Mar; 36(1):129-52.OG
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is now recognized as a heterogeneous disorder that results in overproduction of androgens, primarily from the ovary, leading to anovulation and hirsutism and is associated with insulin resistance. Long-term sequellae of PCOS include higher risk for diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, endometrial hyperplasia, and anovulatory infertility. Symptoms in the adolescent include oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, acne, and weight gain. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes have also been demonstrated in adolescents who have PCOS. Treatment should be instituted early to decrease symptoms and long term sequellae of PCOS. Weight loss, oral contraceptives, and antiandrogens are effective in treating the symptoms of this disorder. Insulin-sensitizing medications have been shown to be effective but should be used with caution until larger randomized trials have shown short- and long term benefits and efficacy over traditional therapies in the adolescent population.