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Self-regulation and rapid weight gain in children from age 3 to 12 years.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163(4):297-302AP

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the extent to which self-regulatory capacities, measured behaviorally at ages 3 and 5 years, were linked to rapid weight gain in children from age 3 to 12 years. Self-regulation failure, or the inability to control an impulse or behavior, has been implicated as a mechanism in the development of overweight.

DESIGN

Prospective longitudinal cohort study.

SETTING

Home and laboratory-based settings in 10 sites across the United States.

PARTICIPANTS

Data were drawn from 1061 children as part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Main Exposure Self-regulatory capacity was measured in 2 behavioral protocols; children participated in a self-control procedure at age 3 years and a delay of gratification procedure at age 5 years.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated based on measured BMI at 6 points.

RESULTS

Mixed-modeling analyses were used to examine differences in the rate of weight gain over time based on the extent to which children exhibited the ability to self-regulate in the behavioral procedures. Compared with children who showed high self-regulation in both behavioral protocols at ages 3 and 5 years, children who exhibited a compromised ability to self-regulate had the highest BMI z scores at each point and the most rapid gains in BMI z scores over the 9-year period. Effects of pubertal status were also noted for girls.

CONCLUSION

Self-regulation failure in early childhood may predispose children to excessive weight gain through early adolescence.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA. lfrancis@psu.eduNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19349557

Citation

Francis, Lori A., and Elizabeth J. Susman. "Self-regulation and Rapid Weight Gain in Children From Age 3 to 12 Years." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 163, no. 4, 2009, pp. 297-302.
Francis LA, Susman EJ. Self-regulation and rapid weight gain in children from age 3 to 12 years. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(4):297-302.
Francis, L. A., & Susman, E. J. (2009). Self-regulation and rapid weight gain in children from age 3 to 12 years. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163(4), pp. 297-302. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2008.579.
Francis LA, Susman EJ. Self-regulation and Rapid Weight Gain in Children From Age 3 to 12 Years. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(4):297-302. PubMed PMID: 19349557.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Self-regulation and rapid weight gain in children from age 3 to 12 years. AU - Francis,Lori A, AU - Susman,Elizabeth J, PY - 2009/4/8/entrez PY - 2009/4/8/pubmed PY - 2009/5/5/medline SP - 297 EP - 302 JF - Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine JO - Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med VL - 163 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which self-regulatory capacities, measured behaviorally at ages 3 and 5 years, were linked to rapid weight gain in children from age 3 to 12 years. Self-regulation failure, or the inability to control an impulse or behavior, has been implicated as a mechanism in the development of overweight. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Home and laboratory-based settings in 10 sites across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Data were drawn from 1061 children as part of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Main Exposure Self-regulatory capacity was measured in 2 behavioral protocols; children participated in a self-control procedure at age 3 years and a delay of gratification procedure at age 5 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated based on measured BMI at 6 points. RESULTS: Mixed-modeling analyses were used to examine differences in the rate of weight gain over time based on the extent to which children exhibited the ability to self-regulate in the behavioral procedures. Compared with children who showed high self-regulation in both behavioral protocols at ages 3 and 5 years, children who exhibited a compromised ability to self-regulate had the highest BMI z scores at each point and the most rapid gains in BMI z scores over the 9-year period. Effects of pubertal status were also noted for girls. CONCLUSION: Self-regulation failure in early childhood may predispose children to excessive weight gain through early adolescence. SN - 1538-3628 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19349557/Self_regulation_and_rapid_weight_gain_in_children_from_age_3_to_12_years_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/10.1001/archpediatrics.2008.579 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -