Urinary excretion of the main anthocyanin in lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, and its metabolites.J Agric Food Chem. 2009 May 27; 57(10):4447-51.JA
In vitro trials have indicated various potential health effects of lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). Most of these studies have been performed with berry extract or juice, and the detailed chemical structures of active compounds in these products have not been elucidated. Lingonberry contains cyanidin-3-galactoside as its main anthocyanin. Absorption and metabolism of the compound is not fully understood, and no studies of anthocyanin metabolism have been performed with lingonberries. The aim of this study was to investigate the urinary excretion of cyanidin-3-galactoside and its metabolites in young and healthy subjects receiving a breakfast containing 300 g of lingonberries. A fast, selective, and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (uHPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized for the analysis of the anthocyanin metabolites in urine. Both intact cyanidin-3-galactoside and its methylated and glucuronidated metabolites were identified from urine samples. The two metabolites represented >50% of cyanidin excreted in urine. Maximal excretion appeared between 4 and 8 h after the meal. Also, the compounds were absorbed more slowly than reported previously in several studies.