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Long-term effects of increased dietary polyunsaturated fat from walnuts on metabolic parameters in type II diabetes.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug; 63(8):1008-15.EJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES

Most dietary interventions have metabolic effects in the short term, but long-term effects may require dietary fat changes to influence body composition and insulin action. This study assessed the effect of sustained high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake through walnut consumption on metabolic outcomes in type II diabetes.

SUBJECTS/METHODS

Fifty overweight adults with non-insulin-treated diabetes (mean age 54+/-8.7 years) were randomized to receive low-fat dietary advice +/-30 g per day walnuts targeting weight maintenance (around 2000 kcal, 30% fat) for 1 year. Differences between groups were assessed by changes in anthropometric values (body weight, body fat, visceral adipose tissue) and clinical indicators of diabetes over treatment time using the general linear model.

RESULTS

The walnut group consumed significantly more PUFA than the control (P=0.035), an outcome attributed to walnut consumption (contributing 67% dietary PUFA at 12 months). Most of the effects were seen in the first 3 months. Despite being on weight maintenance diets, both groups sustained a 1-2 kg weight loss, with no difference between groups (P=0.680). Both groups showed improvements in all clinical parameters with significant time effects (P<0.004), bar triacylglycerol levels, but these were just above normal to begin with. The walnut group produced significantly greater reductions in fasting insulin levels (P=0.046), an effect seen largely in the first 3 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Dietary fat can be manipulated with whole foods such as walnuts, producing reductions in fasting insulin levels. Long-term effects are also apparent but subject to fluctuations in dietary intake if not of the disease process.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Smart Foods Centre, School of Health Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. ltapsell@uow.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19352378

Citation

Tapsell, L C., et al. "Long-term Effects of Increased Dietary Polyunsaturated Fat From Walnuts On Metabolic Parameters in Type II Diabetes." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 8, 2009, pp. 1008-15.
Tapsell LC, Batterham MJ, Teuss G, et al. Long-term effects of increased dietary polyunsaturated fat from walnuts on metabolic parameters in type II diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(8):1008-15.
Tapsell, L. C., Batterham, M. J., Teuss, G., Tan, S. Y., Dalton, S., Quick, C. J., Gillen, L. J., & Charlton, K. E. (2009). Long-term effects of increased dietary polyunsaturated fat from walnuts on metabolic parameters in type II diabetes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63(8), 1008-15. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.19
Tapsell LC, et al. Long-term Effects of Increased Dietary Polyunsaturated Fat From Walnuts On Metabolic Parameters in Type II Diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(8):1008-15. PubMed PMID: 19352378.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Long-term effects of increased dietary polyunsaturated fat from walnuts on metabolic parameters in type II diabetes. AU - Tapsell,L C, AU - Batterham,M J, AU - Teuss,G, AU - Tan,S-Y, AU - Dalton,S, AU - Quick,C J, AU - Gillen,L J, AU - Charlton,K E, Y1 - 2009/04/08/ PY - 2009/4/9/entrez PY - 2009/4/9/pubmed PY - 2009/10/16/medline SP - 1008 EP - 15 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 63 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Most dietary interventions have metabolic effects in the short term, but long-term effects may require dietary fat changes to influence body composition and insulin action. This study assessed the effect of sustained high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake through walnut consumption on metabolic outcomes in type II diabetes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifty overweight adults with non-insulin-treated diabetes (mean age 54+/-8.7 years) were randomized to receive low-fat dietary advice +/-30 g per day walnuts targeting weight maintenance (around 2000 kcal, 30% fat) for 1 year. Differences between groups were assessed by changes in anthropometric values (body weight, body fat, visceral adipose tissue) and clinical indicators of diabetes over treatment time using the general linear model. RESULTS: The walnut group consumed significantly more PUFA than the control (P=0.035), an outcome attributed to walnut consumption (contributing 67% dietary PUFA at 12 months). Most of the effects were seen in the first 3 months. Despite being on weight maintenance diets, both groups sustained a 1-2 kg weight loss, with no difference between groups (P=0.680). Both groups showed improvements in all clinical parameters with significant time effects (P<0.004), bar triacylglycerol levels, but these were just above normal to begin with. The walnut group produced significantly greater reductions in fasting insulin levels (P=0.046), an effect seen largely in the first 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary fat can be manipulated with whole foods such as walnuts, producing reductions in fasting insulin levels. Long-term effects are also apparent but subject to fluctuations in dietary intake if not of the disease process. SN - 1476-5640 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19352378/Long_term_effects_of_increased_dietary_polyunsaturated_fat_from_walnuts_on_metabolic_parameters_in_type_II_diabetes_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.19 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -