Increasing rates and clinical consequences of nalidixic acid-resistant isolates causing enteric fever in returned travellers: an 18-year experience.Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009 Aug; 28(8):963-70.EJ
The purpose of this study was to examine the rate and clinical consequences of nalidixic acid-resistant (NAR) isolates in travellers with enteric fever presenting to a hospital in a developed country. We retrospectively examined microbiologically confirmed cases of enteric fever in adult returned travellers over an 18-year period presenting to two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. There were 59 cases of Salmonella typhi infection, 43 cases of S. paratyphi A infection and two cases of S. paratyphi B infection. Most patients reported recent travel to India (36%) or Indonesia (29%). NAR isolates were commonly encountered (41% of all isolates), particularly from India (75%), Pakistan (80%) and Bangladesh (60%). The number of NAR isolates increased progressively after 2003. Patients with NAR isolates had prolonged mean fever clearance time (5.6 vs. 3.3 days, P = 0.03) and prolonged hospital stay (7.9 vs. 5.7 days, P = 0.02) compared to non-resistant isolates. This represents the largest report of NAR enteric fever in returned travellers. NAR isolates predominate in cases of enteric fever from South Asia and result in prolonged fever clearance time and hospital stay. Empiric therapy with alternative antibiotics such as ceftriaxone or azithromycin should be considered in patients with suspected enteric fever from this region.