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Pain-related anxiety and anxiety sensitivity across anxiety and depressive disorders.
J Anxiety Disord. 2009 Aug; 23(6):791-8.JA

Abstract

Fear-anxiety-avoidance models posit pain-related anxiety and anxiety sensitivity as important contributing variables in the development and maintenance of chronic musculoskeletal pain [Asmundson, G. J. G, Vlaeyen, J. W. S., & Crombez, G. (Eds.). (2004). Understanding and treating fear of pain. New York: Oxford University Press]. Emerging evidence also suggests that pain-related anxiety may be a diathesis for many other emotional disorders [Asmundson, G. J. G., & Carleton, R. N. (2005). Fear of pain is elevated in adults with co-occurring trauma-related stress and social anxiety symptoms. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 34, 248-255; Asmundson, G. J. G., & Carleton, R. N. (2008). Fear of pain. In: M. M. Antony & M. B. Stein (Eds.), Handbook of anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 551-561). New York: Oxford University Press] and appears to share several elements in common with other fears (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, illness/injury sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation) as described by Reiss [Reiss, S. (1991). Expectancy model of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 141-153] and Taylor [Taylor, S. (1993). The structure of fundamental fears. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 24, 289-299]. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess self-reported levels of pain-related anxiety [Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-Short Form; PASS-20; McCracken, L. M., & Dhingra, L. (2002). A short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20): preliminary development and validity. Pain Research and Management, 7, 45-50] across several anxiety and depressive disorders and to compare those levels to non-clinical and chronic pain samples. Participants consisted of a clinical sample (n=418; 63% women) with principal diagnoses of a depressive disorder (DD; n=22), panic disorder (PD; n=114), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=136), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=86), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n=46), or specific phobia (n=14). Secondary group comparisons were made with a community sample as well as with published data from a treatment-seeking chronic pain sample [McCracken, L. M., & Dhingra, L. (2002). A short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20): preliminary development and validity. Pain Research and Management, 7, 45-50]. Results suggest that pain-related anxiety is generally comparable across anxiety and depressive disorders; however, pain-related anxiety was typically higher (p<.01) in individuals with anxiety and depressive disorders relative to a community sample, but comparable to or lower than a chronic pain sample. Results imply that pain-related anxiety may indeed be a construct independent of other fundamental fears, warranting subsequent hierarchical investigations and consideration for inclusion in treatments of anxiety disorders. Additional implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Anxiety and Illness Behaviour Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19362446

Citation

Carleton, R Nicholas, et al. "Pain-related Anxiety and Anxiety Sensitivity Across Anxiety and Depressive Disorders." Journal of Anxiety Disorders, vol. 23, no. 6, 2009, pp. 791-8.
Carleton RN, Abrams MP, Asmundson GJ, et al. Pain-related anxiety and anxiety sensitivity across anxiety and depressive disorders. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23(6):791-8.
Carleton, R. N., Abrams, M. P., Asmundson, G. J., Antony, M. M., & McCabe, R. E. (2009). Pain-related anxiety and anxiety sensitivity across anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(6), 791-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.03.003
Carleton RN, et al. Pain-related Anxiety and Anxiety Sensitivity Across Anxiety and Depressive Disorders. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23(6):791-8. PubMed PMID: 19362446.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pain-related anxiety and anxiety sensitivity across anxiety and depressive disorders. AU - Carleton,R Nicholas, AU - Abrams,Murray P, AU - Asmundson,Gordon J G, AU - Antony,Martin M, AU - McCabe,Randi E, Y1 - 2009/03/27/ PY - 2008/09/10/received PY - 2009/03/11/revised PY - 2009/03/13/accepted PY - 2009/4/14/entrez PY - 2009/4/14/pubmed PY - 2009/7/25/medline SP - 791 EP - 8 JF - Journal of anxiety disorders JO - J Anxiety Disord VL - 23 IS - 6 N2 - Fear-anxiety-avoidance models posit pain-related anxiety and anxiety sensitivity as important contributing variables in the development and maintenance of chronic musculoskeletal pain [Asmundson, G. J. G, Vlaeyen, J. W. S., & Crombez, G. (Eds.). (2004). Understanding and treating fear of pain. New York: Oxford University Press]. Emerging evidence also suggests that pain-related anxiety may be a diathesis for many other emotional disorders [Asmundson, G. J. G., & Carleton, R. N. (2005). Fear of pain is elevated in adults with co-occurring trauma-related stress and social anxiety symptoms. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 34, 248-255; Asmundson, G. J. G., & Carleton, R. N. (2008). Fear of pain. In: M. M. Antony & M. B. Stein (Eds.), Handbook of anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 551-561). New York: Oxford University Press] and appears to share several elements in common with other fears (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, illness/injury sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation) as described by Reiss [Reiss, S. (1991). Expectancy model of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 141-153] and Taylor [Taylor, S. (1993). The structure of fundamental fears. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 24, 289-299]. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess self-reported levels of pain-related anxiety [Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-Short Form; PASS-20; McCracken, L. M., & Dhingra, L. (2002). A short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20): preliminary development and validity. Pain Research and Management, 7, 45-50] across several anxiety and depressive disorders and to compare those levels to non-clinical and chronic pain samples. Participants consisted of a clinical sample (n=418; 63% women) with principal diagnoses of a depressive disorder (DD; n=22), panic disorder (PD; n=114), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=136), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=86), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n=46), or specific phobia (n=14). Secondary group comparisons were made with a community sample as well as with published data from a treatment-seeking chronic pain sample [McCracken, L. M., & Dhingra, L. (2002). A short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20): preliminary development and validity. Pain Research and Management, 7, 45-50]. Results suggest that pain-related anxiety is generally comparable across anxiety and depressive disorders; however, pain-related anxiety was typically higher (p<.01) in individuals with anxiety and depressive disorders relative to a community sample, but comparable to or lower than a chronic pain sample. Results imply that pain-related anxiety may indeed be a construct independent of other fundamental fears, warranting subsequent hierarchical investigations and consideration for inclusion in treatments of anxiety disorders. Additional implications and directions for future research are discussed. SN - 1873-7897 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19362446/Pain_related_anxiety_and_anxiety_sensitivity_across_anxiety_and_depressive_disorders_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0887-6185(09)00078-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -