Quantitative prediction of cell wall polysaccharide composition in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and apple (Malus domestica) skins from acid hydrolysis monosaccharide profiles.J Agric Food Chem. 2009 May 13; 57(9):3611-9.JA
On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported for the quantitative allocation of plant cell wall monomers into relevant structural polysaccharide elements. By this method the relative molar distribution (mol %) of the different polysaccharides in the red wine grape skins was estimated as 57-62 mol % homogalacturonan, 6.0-14 mol % cellulose, 10-11 mol % xyloglucan, 7 mol % arabinan, 4.5-5.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan I, 3.5-4.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan II, 3 mol % arabinogalactan, and 0.5-1.0 mol % mannans; the ranges indicate minor variations in the skin composition of the three different cultivars. These cell wall polysaccharides made up approximately 43-47% by weight of the skins (dry matter), the rest mainly being lignin. The predicted relative molar levels of the polysaccharide elements in the apple skins, which made up approximately 49-64% by weight of the skins (dry matter), appeared to be similar to those of the grape skins. The apple skins were estimated to be relatively richer than grape skins in arabinan, total levels 10-13 mol %, and relatively lower in mannan content, total levels </=0.3 mol %. The data also demonstrate the superiority of trifluoroacetic acid to hydrochloric acid for hydrolysis of plant cell wall material to monosaccharides, notably with respect to the galacturonic acid levels and, in turn, in relation to predicting the relative contents of structural pectin elements in the plant cell wall substrates.