# Mathematical modeling of the fluid dynamics in the flow-through cell.Int J Pharm. 2009 Jul 06; 376(1-2):22-40.IJ

The fluid dynamics in the flow-through cell (USP apparatus 4) has been predicted using the mathematical modeling approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The degree to which flow structures in this apparatus can be qualified as 'ideal' both spatially and temporally has been assessed. The simulations predict the development of the velocity field in this apparatus for configurations with and without beads during the discharge stroke of the pump. When the cell is operated only with the red ruby bead ('open column' mode), highly non-uniform flow is predicted just downstream of the bead in the latter stages of the pump's pulse. In contrast, a strong degree of profile uniformity and symmetry is predicted throughout the entire pulse in the region of the tablet holder for both standard configurations involving beads. However, noticeable differences in the tablet shear stress distribution are predicted at times when the same instantaneous inlet flow rates are being pumped through the apparatus. This effect is caused by flow separation in the velocity boundary layer formed around the tablet under the influence of an adverse pressure gradient, an effect not predicted with constant (non-pulsating) flow. While the degree of tablet erosion correlates with the average flow rate, during a particular pulse both the free-stream velocity and the boundary layer thickness are also influential.

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*International Journal of Pharmaceutics,*vol. 376, no. 1-2, 2009, pp. 22-40.

*Int J Pharm*. 2009;376(1-2):22-40.

*International Journal of Pharmaceutics*,

*376*(1-2), 22-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.04.012

*Int J Pharm.*2009 Jul 6;376(1-2):22-40. PubMed PMID: 19375490.