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Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs): critical roles in development, immunity, circadian rhythm, and cellular metabolism.
Nucl Recept Signal. 2009; 7:e003.NR

Abstract

The last few years have witnessed a rapid increase in our knowledge of the retinoid-related orphan receptors RORalpha, -beta, and -gamma (NR1F1-3), their mechanism of action, physiological functions, and their potential role in several pathologies. The characterization of ROR-deficient mice and gene expression profiling in particular have provided great insights into the critical functions of RORs in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes. These studies revealed that RORalpha plays a critical role in the development of the cerebellum, that both RORalpha and RORbeta are required for the maturation of photoreceptors in the retina, and that RORgamma is essential for the development of several secondary lymphoid tissues, including lymph nodes. RORs have been further implicated in the regulation of various metabolic pathways, energy homeostasis, and thymopoiesis. Recent studies identified a critical role for RORgamma in lineage specification of uncommitted CD4+ T helper cells into Th17 cells. In addition, RORs regulate the expression of several components of the circadian clock and may play a role in integrating the circadian clock and the rhythmic pattern of expression of downstream (metabolic) genes. Study of ROR target genes has provided insights into the mechanisms by which RORs control these processes. Moreover, several reports have presented evidence for a potential role of RORs in several pathologies, including osteoporosis, several autoimmune diseases, asthma, cancer, and obesity, and raised the possibility that RORs may serve as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. This prospect was strengthened by recent evidence showing that RORs can function as ligand-dependent transcription factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cell Biology Section, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. jetten@niehs.nih.gov

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19381306

Citation

Jetten, Anton M.. "Retinoid-related Orphan Receptors (RORs): Critical Roles in Development, Immunity, Circadian Rhythm, and Cellular Metabolism." Nuclear Receptor Signaling, vol. 7, 2009, pp. e003.
Jetten AM. Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs): critical roles in development, immunity, circadian rhythm, and cellular metabolism. Nucl Recept Signal. 2009;7:e003.
Jetten, A. M. (2009). Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs): critical roles in development, immunity, circadian rhythm, and cellular metabolism. Nuclear Receptor Signaling, 7, e003. https://doi.org/10.1621/nrs.07003
Jetten AM. Retinoid-related Orphan Receptors (RORs): Critical Roles in Development, Immunity, Circadian Rhythm, and Cellular Metabolism. Nucl Recept Signal. 2009;7:e003. PubMed PMID: 19381306.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs): critical roles in development, immunity, circadian rhythm, and cellular metabolism. A1 - Jetten,Anton M, Y1 - 2009/04/03/ PY - 2008/12/08/received PY - 2009/03/18/accepted PY - 2009/4/22/entrez PY - 2009/4/22/pubmed PY - 2009/6/12/medline SP - e003 EP - e003 JF - Nuclear receptor signaling JO - Nucl Recept Signal VL - 7 N2 - The last few years have witnessed a rapid increase in our knowledge of the retinoid-related orphan receptors RORalpha, -beta, and -gamma (NR1F1-3), their mechanism of action, physiological functions, and their potential role in several pathologies. The characterization of ROR-deficient mice and gene expression profiling in particular have provided great insights into the critical functions of RORs in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes. These studies revealed that RORalpha plays a critical role in the development of the cerebellum, that both RORalpha and RORbeta are required for the maturation of photoreceptors in the retina, and that RORgamma is essential for the development of several secondary lymphoid tissues, including lymph nodes. RORs have been further implicated in the regulation of various metabolic pathways, energy homeostasis, and thymopoiesis. Recent studies identified a critical role for RORgamma in lineage specification of uncommitted CD4+ T helper cells into Th17 cells. In addition, RORs regulate the expression of several components of the circadian clock and may play a role in integrating the circadian clock and the rhythmic pattern of expression of downstream (metabolic) genes. Study of ROR target genes has provided insights into the mechanisms by which RORs control these processes. Moreover, several reports have presented evidence for a potential role of RORs in several pathologies, including osteoporosis, several autoimmune diseases, asthma, cancer, and obesity, and raised the possibility that RORs may serve as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. This prospect was strengthened by recent evidence showing that RORs can function as ligand-dependent transcription factors. SN - 1550-7629 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19381306/Retinoid_related_orphan_receptors__RORs_:_critical_roles_in_development_immunity_circadian_rhythm_and_cellular_metabolism_ L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1621/nrs.07003?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -