Superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide inhibit proliferation of activated rat stellate cells and induce different modes of cell death.Liver Int. 2009 Jul; 29(6):922-32.LI
In chronic liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) proliferate and produce excessive amounts of connective tissue causing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a driving force of HSC activation and proliferation, although contradictory results have been described.
To determine the effects of oxidative stress on activated HSC proliferation, survival and signalling pathways.
Serum-starved culture-activated rat HSCs were exposed to the superoxide anion donor menadione (5-25 micromol/L) or hydrogen peroxide (0.2-5 mmol/L). Haem oxygenase-1 mRNA expression, glutathione status, cell death, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and proliferation were investigated.
Menadione induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent, but caspase-independent manner. Hydrogen peroxide induced necrosis only at extremely high concentrations. Both menadione and hydrogen peroxide activated Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Hydrogen peroxide also activated extracellular signal-regulated protein. Menadione, but not hydrogen peroxide, reduced cellular glutathione levels. Inhibition of JNK or supplementation of glutathione reduced menadione-induced apoptosis. Non-toxic concentrations of menadione or hydrogen peroxide inhibited platelet-derived growth factor- or/and serum-induced proliferation.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit HSC proliferation and promote HSC cell death in vitro. Different ROS induce different modes of cell death. Superoxide anion-induced HSC apoptosis is dependent on JNK activation and glutathione status.