Comparison of sevelamer hydrochloride and sevelamer carbonate: risk of metabolic acidosis and clinical implications.Pharmacotherapy. 2009 May; 29(5):554-61.P
Hyperphosphatemia is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in those with advanced or end-stage renal disease. Sevelamer hydrochloride is an ion-exchange resin that reduces serum phosphorus concentrations. The agent also produces favorable lipid profile effects and does not cause hypercalcemia. However, reported drawbacks of this agent are metabolic acidosis, high pill burden, and a relatively low affinity and selectivity for phosphate anions. Sevelamer carbonate is a new buffered formulation that does not increase the risk of metabolic acidosis. To determine the roles of these two agents in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with CKD, we performed a MEDLINE search (June 1995-June 2008) focusing on the mechanism of action of resin binding with phosphate and the development of metabolic acidosis. We also reviewed studies that evaluated the effects of sevelamer hydrochloride or sevelamer carbonate on serum bicarbonate concentrations. Several studies in patients with CKD and hyperphosphatemia who received hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis found decreases in serum bicarbonate concentrations with the use of sevelamer hydrochloride, whereas sevelamer carbonate did not have this negative effect on bicarbonate concentrations. Both drugs appear to be equivalent in their abilities to lower serum phosphorus concentrations. However, as sevelamer carbonate does not decrease serum bicarbonate levels, it may be more appropriate for patients at risk for metabolic acidosis who require phosphate binders that do not contain calcium or aluminum.