SK-PC-B70M confers anti-oxidant activity and reduces Abeta levels in the brain of Tg2576 mice.Brain Res 2009; 1261:100-8BR
SK-PC-B70M is an oleanolic-glycoside saponin-enriched fraction derived from the root of Pulsatilla koreana. Recently, it was reported that hederacolchiside-E is an active ingredient of SK-PC-B70M that confers a neuroprotective effect against the cytotoxicity induced by Abeta(1-42) in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. SK-PC-B70M improves scopolamine-induced impairments of spatial working memory in rats. In the present study, we investigated whether SK-PC-B70M has a beneficial effect on the Tg2576 murine model of Alzheimer's disease. ELISA analysis revealed that the levels of soluble and insoluble forms of Abeta(1-42) in Tg2576 mice fed SK-PC-B70M (2000 ppm) from 11 months to 16 months of age were reduced to, respectively, 66% and 79% of the control Tg2576 mice. Anti-Abeta antibody-stained brain sections of Tg2576 mice with SK-PC-B70M (2000 ppm) consistently showed a reduction in plaque formation in the brain. Western blot analyses showed altered expressions of various cellular factors, such as up-regulation of transthyretin, phospho-ERK, and phospho-CREB in the brain treated with SK-PC-B70M. SK-PC-B70M suppressed the neuronal toxicity induced by H(2)O(2) in primary cortical culture. Moreover, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses showed that the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), oxidized by-products of lipid peroxidation, were notably reduced in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice treated with SK-PC-B70M compared with the Tg2576 control. These results suggest that SK-PC-B70M attenuates AD-like pathology in the brain of Tg2576 mice.