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Prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorders.
Pediatrics. 2009 May; 123(5):1293-300.Ped

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal risk factors for autism spectrum disorders by using participants identified through broad ascertainment and reliable classification methods.

METHODS

The targeted population was 8-year-old children born in 1994 and residing in 1 of the 3 most populous counties in Utah who were identified as having an autism spectrum disorder on the basis of methodology used by the 2002 Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Of those identified, 132 children (115 boys, 17 girls) had birth certificate records available. Each child was matched by gender and birth year to 100 controls (11 500 boys, 1700 girls) from the birth certificate database in a nested case-control design. Birth certificate records of participants and controls were surveyed for 23 potentially pathologic prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors.

RESULTS

The prenatal factors that occurred significantly more frequently among children with autism spectrum disorders were advanced maternal age and parity. Increased duration of education among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders was small but statistically significant. Significant perinatal factors were breech presentation and primary cesarean delivery. When corrected for breech presentation, a known indication for cesarean delivery, the association between primary cesarean delivery and autism spectrum disorders was eliminated. There were no significant associations found between autism spectrum disorders and neonatal factors.

CONCLUSIONS

In the absence of other complications suggesting fetal distress, the association between breech presentation and autism spectrum disorders in this study suggests a shared etiology rather than causal relationship. Additional investigation focused on both genetic and environmental factors that link these autism spectrum disorder risk factors individually or collectively is needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. deborah.bilder@hsc.utah.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19403494

Citation

Bilder, Deborah, et al. "Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Factors Associated With Autism Spectrum Disorders." Pediatrics, vol. 123, no. 5, 2009, pp. 1293-300.
Bilder D, Pinborough-Zimmerman J, Miller J, et al. Prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2009;123(5):1293-300.
Bilder, D., Pinborough-Zimmerman, J., Miller, J., & McMahon, W. (2009). Prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 123(5), 1293-300. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-0927
Bilder D, et al. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Factors Associated With Autism Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics. 2009;123(5):1293-300. PubMed PMID: 19403494.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorders. AU - Bilder,Deborah, AU - Pinborough-Zimmerman,Judith, AU - Miller,Judith, AU - McMahon,William, PY - 2009/5/1/entrez PY - 2009/5/1/pubmed PY - 2009/5/27/medline SP - 1293 EP - 300 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 123 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal risk factors for autism spectrum disorders by using participants identified through broad ascertainment and reliable classification methods. METHODS: The targeted population was 8-year-old children born in 1994 and residing in 1 of the 3 most populous counties in Utah who were identified as having an autism spectrum disorder on the basis of methodology used by the 2002 Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Of those identified, 132 children (115 boys, 17 girls) had birth certificate records available. Each child was matched by gender and birth year to 100 controls (11 500 boys, 1700 girls) from the birth certificate database in a nested case-control design. Birth certificate records of participants and controls were surveyed for 23 potentially pathologic prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors. RESULTS: The prenatal factors that occurred significantly more frequently among children with autism spectrum disorders were advanced maternal age and parity. Increased duration of education among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders was small but statistically significant. Significant perinatal factors were breech presentation and primary cesarean delivery. When corrected for breech presentation, a known indication for cesarean delivery, the association between primary cesarean delivery and autism spectrum disorders was eliminated. There were no significant associations found between autism spectrum disorders and neonatal factors. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of other complications suggesting fetal distress, the association between breech presentation and autism spectrum disorders in this study suggests a shared etiology rather than causal relationship. Additional investigation focused on both genetic and environmental factors that link these autism spectrum disorder risk factors individually or collectively is needed. SN - 1098-4275 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19403494/Prenatal_perinatal_and_neonatal_factors_associated_with_autism_spectrum_disorders_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=19403494 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -