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Milk decreases urinary excretion but not plasma pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites in humans.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun; 89(6):1784-91.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cocoa drinks containing flavan-3-ols are associated with many health benefits, and conflicting evidence exists as to whether milk adversely affects the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to determine the effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites.

DESIGN

Nine human volunteers followed a low-flavonoid diet for 2 d before drinking 250 mL of a cocoa beverage, made with water or milk, that contained 45 micromol (-)-epicatechin and (-)-catechin. Plasma and urine samples were collected for 24 h, and flavan-3-ol metabolites were analyzed by HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection.

RESULTS

Milk affected neither gastric emptying nor the transit time through the small intestine. Two flavan-3-ol metabolites were detected in plasma and 4 in urine. Milk had only minor effects on the plasma pharmacokinetics of an (epi)catechin-O-sulfate and had no effect on an O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate. However, milk significantly lowered the excretion of 4 urinary flavan-3-ol metabolites from 18.3% to 10.5% of the ingested dose (P = 0.016). Studies that showed protective effects of cocoa and those that showed no effect of milk on bioavailability used products that have a much higher flavan-3-ol content than does the commercial cocoa used in the present study.

CONCLUSIONS

Most studies of the protective effects of cocoa have used drinks with a very high flavan-3-ol content. Whether similar protective effects are associated with the consumption of many commercial chocolate and cocoa products containing substantially lower amounts of flavan-3-ols, especially when absorption at lower doses is obstructed by milk, remains to be determined.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19403635

Citation

Mullen, William, et al. "Milk Decreases Urinary Excretion but Not Plasma Pharmacokinetics of Cocoa Flavan-3-ol Metabolites in Humans." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 6, 2009, pp. 1784-91.
Mullen W, Borges G, Donovan JL, et al. Milk decreases urinary excretion but not plasma pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(6):1784-91.
Mullen, W., Borges, G., Donovan, J. L., Edwards, C. A., Serafini, M., Lean, M. E., & Crozier, A. (2009). Milk decreases urinary excretion but not plasma pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(6), 1784-91. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27339
Mullen W, et al. Milk Decreases Urinary Excretion but Not Plasma Pharmacokinetics of Cocoa Flavan-3-ol Metabolites in Humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(6):1784-91. PubMed PMID: 19403635.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Milk decreases urinary excretion but not plasma pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites in humans. AU - Mullen,William, AU - Borges,Gina, AU - Donovan,Jennifer L, AU - Edwards,Christine A, AU - Serafini,Mauro, AU - Lean,Michael E J, AU - Crozier,Alan, Y1 - 2009/04/29/ PY - 2009/5/1/entrez PY - 2009/5/1/pubmed PY - 2009/6/13/medline SP - 1784 EP - 91 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 89 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cocoa drinks containing flavan-3-ols are associated with many health benefits, and conflicting evidence exists as to whether milk adversely affects the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites. DESIGN: Nine human volunteers followed a low-flavonoid diet for 2 d before drinking 250 mL of a cocoa beverage, made with water or milk, that contained 45 micromol (-)-epicatechin and (-)-catechin. Plasma and urine samples were collected for 24 h, and flavan-3-ol metabolites were analyzed by HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection. RESULTS: Milk affected neither gastric emptying nor the transit time through the small intestine. Two flavan-3-ol metabolites were detected in plasma and 4 in urine. Milk had only minor effects on the plasma pharmacokinetics of an (epi)catechin-O-sulfate and had no effect on an O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate. However, milk significantly lowered the excretion of 4 urinary flavan-3-ol metabolites from 18.3% to 10.5% of the ingested dose (P = 0.016). Studies that showed protective effects of cocoa and those that showed no effect of milk on bioavailability used products that have a much higher flavan-3-ol content than does the commercial cocoa used in the present study. CONCLUSIONS: Most studies of the protective effects of cocoa have used drinks with a very high flavan-3-ol content. Whether similar protective effects are associated with the consumption of many commercial chocolate and cocoa products containing substantially lower amounts of flavan-3-ols, especially when absorption at lower doses is obstructed by milk, remains to be determined. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19403635/Milk_decreases_urinary_excretion_but_not_plasma_pharmacokinetics_of_cocoa_flavan_3_ol_metabolites_in_humans_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -