Influence of plasma and red cell factors on the rheologic properties of oxygenated sickle blood during clinical steady state.J Lab Clin Med 1991; 118(4):332-42JL
Yield stress is a sensitive index of blood fluidity at low shear stress. Using a method that measured the stress required to cause motion of a thin sedimenting layer of red cells, we found significant elevations of yield stress in patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia during clinical steady state. Mixing studies of sickle cells in normal plasma and buffered saline and of normal red cells in sickle plasma showed (1) that the increased yield stress of sickle blood was not due to differences between sickle and normal plasma factors and (2) that yield stress of sickle cells was not increased in the absence of plasma proteins. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine the dependence of sickle blood yield stress on several red cell and plasma factors. The yield stress measurements were normalized for differences in plasma fibrinogen concentration. Other factors studied included cell density, fetal hemoglobin concentration, alpha globin genotype, cell deformability as measured by high shear viscosity, and fibronectin and von Willebrand factor concentrations. Cell density was the primary determinant of yield stress. Measurements of yield stress on density fractionated sickle cells confirmed that the increased yield stress of sickle blood was due to the dense sickle erythrocyte. We conclude that the increased yield stress of sickle blood during clinical steady state was due to an abnormal interaction between the dense sickle cell membrane and plasma protein(s).